Walnut planting seedling
The desire of gardeners to have several walnuts on their site is based not only on the goals of earning, but primarily on the beneficial properties of the fruits, foliage and wood of this plant. After all, it’s not for nothing that hard drupes have long been renowned for the “acorn of the gods,” “the food of the warriors,” and the “tree of life”. About how and when to properly plant seedlings of this plant, as well as how to care for it, we will discuss further.
In horticulture, a strong tree with a well-developed root system, a powerful trunk with a uniform bark and 3-5 skeletal branches is considered to be a promising planting material. It is important that the plant does not have any spotting, growths and galls.
Their presence indicates a progressive pathogenic environment, which will adversely affect the further growth of the culture. Affected specimens will not be able to withstand colds, drought or excessive dampness, as well as pest attacks. Therefore, it is better to make such purchases in specialized garden centers and shops.
Important! For planting, only lignified seedlings are suitable.
The specificity of walnuts, or, as they are also called, Voloshsky nuts, lies in the initial intensive development of the underground part. Meanwhile, apical biomass remains weak. Its active growth begins after the formation of the rhizome.
To make the right choice of seedling, carefully inspect the tree you like, paying attention to:
- Roots. They should be well branched, even, with a homogeneous structure. To check their freshness, it is enough to scratch one of the processes. The fresh wood that appeared at the wound site is a sign of high quality. But the darkened endings and brown spotting indicate the beginning of putrefactive processes. It is better to refuse such an instance.
- Trunk. In a fully developing nut, it is smooth, even and thick, without any damage or traces of damage. Unacceptable roughness on the bark and dryness, as well as any curvature and defects. Also, do not buy nuts with competing central processes. The best for rooting are annual nuts, the height of which reaches no more than 30 cm. In the case of the purchase of two-year-old seedlings, they will have to be shortened to the level of half a meter. If this is not done, the rhizome will not be able to provide proper nutrition for the excessively large aerial parts.
- The presence of lateral sprouts and foliage on them. Experts advise choosing leafless specimens, as they are easier to take root and more winter-hardy.
If you need to transport the acquired tree over long distances, make sure that its root system is well-packed. It is better to place the plant in a plastic bag filled with a moist substrate of sufficient depth.
Selection of soil and landing site
By virtue of their Asian origin, nuts prefer mountainous, spacious areas with good lighting, moderate humidity and adequate soil nutrition. They can easily adapt to a cool climate, but they react painfully to shade, crampedness and excessive dampness.
Therefore, an ideal place to plant this culture in the garden is any lawn flooded with sunshine, where:
- within a radius of 5 m there are no buildings and high-growing plants (the culture has a powerful rhizome, which, to the extent of its development, can destroy even reinforced concrete and, like a sponge, absorbs all the useful substances from the soil);
- not swampy loose and fertile soil, preferably carbonate loam;
- deep occurrence of groundwater (no closer than 2.5 m to the surface of the earth);
- melt and rain water do not accumulate;
- there are no through winds and lowlands in which cold air gathers.
Did you know? In Asia, in the homeland of walnuts, these trees are considered sacred. Therefore, many specimens reach 400 years of age.
The closest neighbors for walnuts can be any kind of currant, raspberry, quince, wild rose, hazelnut, bird cherry and viburnum. But with an unsuccessful landing plan, growing near the plum, and dogwood can suffer.
In order for the fruits of the cultivated crop to be oily and tasty, experienced gardeners advise planting several nuts on the compound for the purpose of cross-pollination. For this, 2–4 trees are enough. In this case, it is necessary to maintain a distance between them of approximately 4.5–5 m. If the seedlings are planted on a slope - the density between adjacent seedlings can be reduced to 3.5 m.
When to plant
Many gardeners strongly recommend planting nuts in the spring.so that in the cold they get stronger and grow a powerful root shoot. However, in this case it is extremely important to provide abundant watering for young trees, since the risks of soil weathering are great. To avoid this, it is necessary to act when rooting a seedling, watering the root system until the earth ceases to absorb water.
Important! Spring planting of walnuts must be carried out before the leafy buds open.
Other owners plan to plant walnut crops exclusively in the fall, explaining their position with more favorable conditions for adapting the roots to a new place. But then it is important to be in time with rooting before the first frosts.
In fact, the optimal timing of planting the "tree of life" depends on the climate of a particular region. For example, for its cultivation in the northern latitudes, the procedure is appropriate in April, when the snow cover completely melts and the earth warms up to stable + 12 ° C.
It is important to monitor the weather conditions, depending on which the timing of tree planting can move significantly. In the southern latitudes, these plants take root better when they are rooted in the period from mid-October to the first decade of November.
Planting any tree in a permanent place requires preliminary preparation of the site and the seedling itself.
At this stage, it is important to clean the selected area of debris, dig to the depth of a bayonet-shovel and fertilize the soil with a mixture of (the proportion is calculated for 1 m²):
- wood ash - 2 glasses;
- manure - 1 bucket;
- superphosphate - 50 g.
Before rooting the rhizome, plants are scrupulously inspected for rot and mold. Spoiled processes are cut off with a sharp knife to live wood, after which the cut site is treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
The landing pit should be 50 × 40 × 40 in size. To stimulate the development of lateral growth, its bottom is covered with a dark plastic film, after which it is filled with manure-ash fertilizer. For better absorption of excess moisture, you can pour a thin ball of any drainage before.
Did you know? Only 400 g of walnuts will fully satisfy a person’s daily need for a complete, rich in essential elements and vitamins food.
The roots of the nut are placed on a fertile layer of soil, with which a recess is covered with a third, and watered abundantly. After that, the pit is sprinkled with a substrate and carefully compacted to exclude underground voids.
It is strictly forbidden to deepen nuts deeply, as this is fraught with their aging. Excessive elevation of the root neck is also unacceptable. Make sure that when planting the annual tree is deepened by about 6-7 cm.
When the tree of "divine acorns" is accepted, to obtain an abundant harvest he needs to provide constant care. It consists in supporting the desired regime of soil moisture, maintaining hygiene in near-stem circles, fertilizing and forming a crown.In the northern regions, annual seedlings may need preparation for wintering.
The quality of future fruits depends on the amount of moisture in the earth. Particular attention is required to young seedlings that have never entered the fruiting phase. For the successful formation of their productivity, it is recommended to moisten seedlings up to 14 times per season in hot and dry summers, pouring up to 2–2.5 buckets of settled non-cold water under each root.
Adult nuts, which are more than 5 years old, need to be watered no more than 3 times a month at the rate of 6-8 buckets for each root. At the same time, permanent swamping of the site should not be allowed, since this is fraught with the development of a pathogenic environment, putrefactive diseases and death of the plant.
How to fertilize
Walnut crops do not like excessive amounts of fertilizer, so they need to be fed extremely rarely. Such exceptional cases are resuscitation measures, when a plant has poor growth, foliage prematurely turns yellow, a weak root system and above-ground biomass.
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The following substances will help replenish stocks of useful microelements to a diseased and retarded tree (the amount is indicated per 1 m² of the trunk circle):
- humus (5 kg);
- compost (4–5 kg);
- wood ash (2 kg);
- ammonium nitrate (10 g);
- urea or urea (25 g);
- potassium humate or potassium salt (30 g);
- superphosphate (12 g);
- ammophos and other fertilizers of the phosphorus group (10-12 g).
If during planting the "vital tree" fertilizing was introduced, then he will need a repeated procedure only after 8-10 years. According to the generally accepted rules of gardening, in the spring, nitrogenous components are relevant for any crop, and in the fall - potassium and phosphorus components. Such a sequence will provide the seedling with proper development and help prepare for winter.
For walnuts, annual sanitary pruning is essential. To enhance their fruitful qualities, it is recommended to form crowns for young seedlings.
Flowering of walnuts begins in April and lasts about 2 weeks. A healthy self-fertile tree during this period does not require additional measures to form an ovary, but there are a number of cases when the culture does not bloom.
Did you know? The life expectancy of walnuts in the wild is more than 1000 years, and in private courtyards - 500 years.
Here are the most common ones:
- No pollinator. Nuts in which flowering occurs according to the protandric and protogonic type (when male or female flowers first open) are not capable of self-pollination. Therefore, in the neighborhood they necessarily need a simultaneously flowering culture with opposite-flowering flowering.
- Excessive amount of fertilizer and moisture in the ground. Clear signs of this are the active growth of biomass and the lack of budding. As a result of frequent dressing and watering, such an instance directs all its resources to the formation of the root system and crown, halting the development of other processes. You can save the situation only by setting moisturizers and fertilizers.
- Thickened crown. The problem is obvious when many young short shoots appear on the tree. Their foliage creates a shadow, as a result of which flowering shoots cannot fully develop. In the best case, the excessive density of the crown prevents the pollination of the flowers that have appeared.
- Unfavourable conditions. They consist in increased dampness of air, when in the spring there are prolonged rains, acid soil, attacks of parasites and the development of fungal infections.
To prevent inhibitory flowering factors, experts advise:
- to plant a seedling with another variety similar in flowering cycle;
- take care of the presence of pollinating neighbors;
- if there is an excessive amount of fertilizer, cut the rhizome on young trees (for this purpose, a hole is made in the trunk circle with a radius of 0.5–1 m to the depth of a bayonet-shovel);
- annually remove competing branches;
- periodically in the garden to loosen the soil with the help of a pitchfork;
- in early spring, before buds open, carry out prophylactic treatment of the crown with quicklime diluted in water and copper sulphate in 1: 1 proportions.
The "Tree of Life" is characterized by high winter-hardiness and in adulthood does not require additional preparation for the cold. Young seedlings, in contrast, need human care.
It consists in:
- autumn top dressing with phosphorus and potash fertilizers;
- a few weeks before frosts, pour abundantly around the tree trunks (it is recommended to pour up to 8 buckets of water under each root);
- wrapping trunks with corrugated paper or agrofiber (applies only to annual copies);
- whitewashing (applies to trees older than 2 years).
Growing walnuts is not time consuming and even new gardeners can do. Unpretentious culture is characterized by rapid growth and easy adaptation to new conditions. Her valuable benefits will be a generous payment for minimal care and maintenance. If you follow the basic agricultural rules, the tree will be healthy and long-lasting.