Description of black walnut and cultivation features
Walnut is one of the most common trees not only in the wild, but also in personal plots. There are quite a few varieties of this plant, and the prevalence is due to its unpretentiousness and unique beneficial properties of the fruits. Today, among the followers of alternative medicine, the so-called black nut is gaining great popularity, the properties and cultivation of which can be found in the article.
American (black) walnut is a native of North America and continues to spread outside its homeland almost everywhere, but it is better to take root in a warm climate. Its name is due to the unusual dark color of the bark, roots and shell of the fruit.
Did you know? An unusual feature characteristic of this plant is that flowering and the appearance of foliage on the branches occur simultaneously.
Externally, it is not difficult to identify the nut in accordance with the description:
- the tree grows to an impressive size, its height is often 45-50 m;
- the roots, trunk and branches are dark brown in color, the bark is dense, covered with furrows;
- branches are sprawling, powerful, the crown reaches large sizes, often exceeding the height of the tree itself;
- the leaves are long, about 25 cm, consist of alternately arranged small (up to 10 cm) green leaves of an oval-pointed shape with fine-toothed edges;
- pistil flowers are collected in brushes, stamens comprise earrings up to 15 cm long;
- the fruit is round, large, covered with dense green skin, edible. The nut has a strong dark brown shell, similar in shape to the walnut.
The benefits and harms of plants
Black walnut is very popular among healers and adherents of alternative medicine, people who adhere to a plant diet also do not disregard it. Such interest in culture is caused by the fact that its fruits contain a high content of useful and, in some cases, healing substances, vitamins and microelements. The kernel contains a standard set of vitamins (A, B, PP, E, C), among which vitamin C, flavonoids, fatty acids, tannins predominate. A distinctive feature is the content in the product of a substance called yuglon, a chemical compound that, among other things, has antibiotic and antifungal effects.
- The chemical composition gives the American nut a wider range of useful properties compared to its walnut relative:
- helps to cleanse the blood and lymphatic system;
- acts as an effective antispasmodic, dilates blood vessels;
- It has a mild sedative and calming effect;
- normalizes intestinal microflora;
- helps with wound healing, has anti-inflammatory effect;
- used in the treatment of helminthic invasion, reduces the effect of toxic substances;
- It is an antioxidant due to its high content of vitamin C.
- Despite the obvious benefits, there are many contraindications to the use of the fetus:
- intolerance to the product;
- liver diseases, in particular cirrhosis;
- chronic diseases of the stomach, gastritis;
- severe vascular disease, thrombophlebitis;
- pregnancy and lactation.
Important! Even if a person has no contraindications, caution should be exercised and not exceed the norm of 1 handful of nuts per day, since abuse can lead to an allergic reaction.
The subtleties of growing nuts from fruits
Propagation of the culture is possible in three ways: cuttings, seeds and clothespins. Due to the simplicity of the process and the general availability of fruits, the seed propagation method is used quite often when grown in a summer cottage.
In order for a viable plant to grow out of the fruit, you need to responsibly approach the planting process. First of all, it is important to choose the right site. Acidic soils are not suitable for nuts, sites with chernozem with neutral or moderate alkaline soil are preferred.
The selected location should be protected from the wind from the north, as the culture does not tolerate cold drafts. Based on the size of the crown and rhizome, a sufficient area should be allocated to the tree, and plants capable of growing in the shade of a spreading crown should be planted next door.Before planting material is planted, the soil must be loosened and, if possible, mulched. If the soil is non-chernozemic, it is recommended that any type of potash-phosphorus fertilizer be added to it in accordance with the instructions before planting.
They plant a nut in late spring, provided that the soil is well warmed up.. It is necessary to start preparing the material for planting from the second decade of April.
Did you know? The root system of a plant in the first years after planting develops three times more intensively than its crown.
This process involves several steps:
- The fruit is placed for 3 days in a glass or other transparent vessel with purified water of chlorine temperature + 20 ... + 23 ° C. Water should be changed daily in the morning or evening.
- Then the nut is taken out and buried in moist sawdust or sand to a depth of 10-12 cm. For these purposes, a flower pot with a drainage hole is suitable. There, the core is left for two weeks at a temperature of + 18 ... + 24 ° C, the substrate is periodically moistened so that it does not dry out.
You need to plant germinated nuts in prepared soil in advance from autumn. To do this, dig small holes 12 cm deep, planting material is placed in them sprout down, and then moisten the soil. As a rule, seedlings can be found after a month, and by the beginning of autumn shoots can reach 15 cm in height.
It should be remembered that adult trees have an impressive crown and root system, so when planting several trees, it is better to place them at a distance of 10-15 m from each other and at least 3 m from residential and utility buildings. So agronomic requirements will be observed, and the alley will look neat.
Important! Non-compliance with the sowing pattern is undesirable not only because of the large size of the plant, but also because the concentration of phytoncides secreted by the tree in a thickened planting is so high that it can destroy even the beneficial bacteria around it.
Black Nut Care Rules
In addition to choosing the right place for planting American walnut, it is also important to follow the basic rules for caring for the plant, this will allow you to grow a strong and healthy tree and avoid troubles in the process.
How to water a tree?
The paramount task is the organization of the irrigation regime, taking into account the characteristics of plant development. Black walnut is very hygroscopic, so it is important to ensure regular watering and mulching of the soil. Particularly worth paying attention to young trees, which are just beginning to bloom and produce foliage. Drying of the soil should not be allowed during this period.
In mid-summer, watering intensity is reduced to prepare the crop for wintering. In some cases, for example, during dry summers or with abundant fruiting, the tree should be watered until the second half of August. By the time it is time to harvest (September - early October), watering is stopped.
Crown shaping and trimming
In general, the considered type of nut forms its crown independently and does not require mandatory trimming. Once a season, it is recommended to prune dry or damaged branches with secateurs, which helps to improve growth and increase productivity.Trimming a tree is better in the spring, before the start of the growing season, but only after the cessation of night frost.
If there is a need for decorative pruning, then it should be carried out no earlier than 3-4 years of the plant's life. More often, the technique of excising apical shoots is used in order to give the crown a more round and spreading shape.You can not prune in the summer, as this can provoke the formation of buds, and the plant will be unprepared for the onset of cold weather.
Nut dressing and fertilizer
Black nut does not need constant fertilizer, therefore, the tactics of preliminary fertilizing the soil is recommended:
- six months before the spring planting of seedlings or seedlings (in autumn), the plot is fertilized with humus at the rate of 3 kg per 1 m² of cultivated area;
- if the plant propagates by seedlings, then immediately before planting them, but not later than 2 weeks later, 100-150 g of superphosphate are placed in the finished wells (nitrophoska can be used according to the instructions) and 1 bucket of manure.
Having become acquainted with the peculiarities of growing black walnut and its main characteristics, we can conclude that its cultivation does not require a specific approach, but it involves observing the basic rules of agricultural technology. Such a tree will be a wonderful decoration of a summer cottage in regions with a warm climate and provide high-quality fruits with unique healing properties.