Gardeners love decorative almonds for their abundant flowering and spherical crown. Flowers can be simple or double, white, different shades of pink, raspberry, etc. Grow it in the form of bushes or small trees. Most often, almonds are used to create a hedge, in the landscape design of the site or as a decoration for the house. How it can be propagated independently is described further in the article.
For seedling, only raw almonds are suitable. It is better to choose varieties developed specifically for the relevant climatic conditions. Before germination, nuts are advised to soak for up to one and a half months in the refrigerator. At low temperatures, fetal sleep occurs. Once in a warm environment, they sprout more actively. The probability of decay in nuts that have undergone such a procedure (stratification) is reduced.
The strongest and most healthy fruits are selected, dipped in a container, poured with water at room temperature 1.5–2 cm above the seeds, incubated for 24 hours. During this time, the nuts swell. The water is drained, the almonds are washed. If the shells are selected, they are punctured from the sharp end. Pour the nuts with fresh clean water for another 8-12 hours. Drain the water, inspect the nuts. Bones suitable for germination should already hatch.
Did you know? More than 50% of the world's almonds are produced in the state of California (USA).
Repeat the procedure with a new towel and place in the refrigerator for another 8 days. The nuts are taken out, placed in the soil with a hatching spine down, leaving the rest on the surface. To the seed went faster in growth, it is recommended to peel it from the husk. To grow almonds at home, you will need a pot of up to 75 liters. But first, the sprouted nut is placed in a pot with a diameter of 12-15 cm. As the plants grow, the containers are gradually increased.
One of the easiest ways is to place the almond fruit immediately in the pot to a depth of 3 cm with the sharp end up, moisten the soil, leave it on the windowsill on the sunny side, organizing the greenhouse conditions (covering with a plastic bottle cut in half). With this method of germination, the first shoots can be counted after 5-6 weeks.
Important! If the bones are planted immediately in the soil on the garden plot, the distance between the holes (8-10 cm deep) is 10-15 cm, and 40-50 cm are left between the rows.
Almonds are vaccinated in the spring (after a period of rest and warming the trunk to positive temperatures) or in August. As a stock you can use cherry plum, bird cherry, plum, peach or blackthorn. Cut almond stalks, remove all foliage, leaving petioles 1 cm long.
a - an annual shoot with leaves, b - a stalk for budding, c - the position of the hands when cutting the eye, d, e, f, g - binding of the inserted eye.
Dust is removed from the stock by wiping with a damp cloth. Vaccination is done on the trunk from 7 to 14 cm above the first roots. A bark in the form of the letter "T" is cut with a peeling knife, slightly turned away. With a handle that is used as a scion, remove a strip of bark with a kidney and a thin layer of wood. The graft is inserted into the incision, the bark is pressed, everything is fixed (for example, with a bud tape). The kidney is left free.
The propagation of almonds by cuttings allows you to save all the best qualities of the mother bush.They are harvested in July. The branches cut off at this time quickly take root and take root. Cutting better lateral branches of young plants.
Twigs with a woody, but not dry and dense coating, up to 15 cm long, with 2-3 knots are chosen. They should be rooted in loose soil from peat and sand (2: 1), in which the root system breathes freely. The selected planting material is immersed in it to the upper kidney.To increase the percentage of survival, you can cut the cuttings in the second half of June, keep them in a growth stimulator for 15-16 hours, plant them in a cool greenhouse in loose soil. After 3-4 weeks, when strong roots appear, the almonds are transplanted into the garden or pot.
Almonds can grow and shoots that appear after pruning. For breeding choose two-year-old offspring. They are carefully dug up, trying to injure the roots as little as possible, and transplanted to a new place.
Decorative almonds have quite flexible elastic branches. To get layering, they are bent to the ground, fixed with metal studs and covered with soil with a layer of 15–20 cm. It is possible to transplant layering no earlier than a year later, when they have a strong root system.
Rooting in a branch
For this method, on a 3-4-year-old tree, a branch with well-developed lateral shoots is selected. In this case, after rooting, you can get an already formed young tree. Work is carried out in the spring. 15–20 cm below the last lateral branching on a branch in diameter with a sharp knife remove the bark 1–2 cm wide. A plastic pot is cut from the side, put on the branch so that the incision is in the middle of the container.The edges of the pot are fastened with wire - it should sit tightly on a branch. Moss or sawdust is laid at the bottom, a drainage layer of sand is poured on top, then a wet mixture of sod-leaf humus and sand. Instead of a pot, you can use a regular plastic film, which is attached to the branch on both sides with a rope. Soil use the same.At first, it is recommended that the leaves of the plant be sprayed with settled water daily. The renewal of the growth of the branch will show that the rooting was successful. After the cessation of growth of young shoots and the complete formation of leaves, the branch is cut under a pot. The container is removed, the roots are released from the soil and drainage. Almonds are planted in a container with a nutrient mixture or on a bed. If the tree begins to fade, put a plastic bag on the crown. To accustom almonds to the surrounding atmosphere, after 3-4 weeks they begin to periodically remove it.
Traditional planting care - watering, cultivating, protecting against diseases and pests, pruning. Moderate watering is carried out only when the soil has dried to a depth of about 1.5–2 cm. One young plant is watered, based on the norm of 3-5 liters of water once a week
Immediately after planting, gardeners recommend mulching the soil with a peat layer of 3-5 cm, being careful not to fill the root of the neck. This will save moisture and prevent weeds from growing. If such work has not been carried out, the soil is regularly loosened to a depth of not more than 5 cm so as not to damage the roots. Weeds are removed at the same time.
Important! The plant does not like to dry the soil, and waterlogging leads to decay of the root neck.
To protect plants from fungi, spider mites, aphids, leafworms, etc., they are sprayed with “Topaz”, “Fundazol”, “Skor”, “Actellik”, “Calypso”, “Fufanon”, “Kleschevit”, “Akarit” etc.
Two or three times spraying of plants with “Karbofos” or “Chlorophos” 0.1% concentration with an interval of 12-14 days is effective against plum moth. Against moniliosis, they are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid twice after 15–20 days. Processing of 1% aqueous suspension of colloidal sulfur helps to prevent rust.
Especially important for almonds is fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. In late April - early May, a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate is prepared in a bucket of settled water. You can add 10 g of urea. They bring it into the near-stem circle of an adult tree. Autumn top dressing consists in adding 20 g of potassium sulfate and double superphosphate for every 1 m².
How to make roots green cuttings
This method does not differ in complex technology. Work on the preparation of planting material is carried out from the beginning of the fall in the fall until the soil freezes. You can use this breeding option with an interval of at least 4 years for one plant. The uterine almonds are pruned. The mother liquor is planted again, and the roots:
- sorted by thickness;
- collected in bunches;
- dipped in a box to a depth of 25-30 cm;
- add up.
Green cuttings from the roots are planted in the garden after the soil warms up well, but before the almond blossoms. Do not loosen the soil before planting. They are planted in the groove 1–2 cm below the surface level, they are covered, lightly tamped, mulched with peat, and the rows are loosened. In autumn or early spring, 20-30 cm shoots are cut. This stimulates the development of the weak and the formation of new shoots.
Did you know? February 16th — World Almond Day. Around this day, the trees begin to bloom.
What a good landing in summer
It is especially good to plant almonds in summer in areas with cold winters. Before the onset of the first cold weather, the plant manages to adapt in a new place, take root and grow stronger. It will easily tolerate frosts.
So, rooting varietal decorative almonds is not the most difficult procedure. Having spent a little effort, you can make a hedge of a beautifully flowering exotic bush with your own hands.