Growing hazel in the country
Growing a plant like hazel in summer cottages is a common occurrence, as the nuts of this shrub are very useful. The article discusses the main nuances of planting and caring for this plant.
Hazel is represented by tall shrubs and trees with an oval or spherical crown. The plant has large oval leaves with jagged edges. Hazel flowers can be male or female. The formation of male inflorescences, in the form of earrings, begins in the autumn, and they open in the spring, before the leaves appear on the tree. Female flowers appear on the hazel in late March or early April. The fruit of hazel is a small single-seeded nut of brown color and rounded in shape. The core is in a dense woody pericarp. Harvest of hazel is harvested in August.
When to plant hazel
Planting plants in open ground is carried out in spring and autumn. The best option would be to plant hazelnuts in autumn. This is due to the fact that the plant will have more time to take root in a new place before the flowering period. The planting area needs to be well protected from drafts, and also pay attention that the subsoil waters do not come closer to the surface closer than 1.5 m .
Important! For normal nutrition of the hazel root system with useful substances, the fertile area around the tree should be up to 10 m².
For planting these plants, loose soil with fertilizers applied is best suited. If you decide to plant several bushes of hazel, it is better to dig the entire site before planting.
Video: Planting hazel
Landing in spring
Hazelnuts are planted in late March or early April. In the fall, they prepare a place for landing, digging a pit 0.7 m deep and 0.5 m wide, so that during the winter period the earth is saturated with water and well compacted. During planting, plants need to be poured into the dug hole a little earth in which wild hazel grew: spores of fungi in it stimulate the growth of shrubs well. After planting for several months, it is necessary to shade the bushes so that they do not wither under the action of direct sunlight.
How to plant in autumn
A seedling selected for planting should be without leaves and have at least three strong stems. You need to choose plants with a well-developed root, the length of which reaches 0.5 m. Before planting, the root system is halved so that it grows in width and strengthens.
Did you know? Hazelnuts are considered weeds due to the fast rate of reproduction.
If it is planned to plant two or more plants, the distance between them should be at least 3 m. The width and depth of the pit for the seedling should be 0.5 and 0.7 m, respectively. Before landing on the bottom of the hole make 150-200 grams of superphosphate and 15 kg of humus.
Planted Plant Care
Growing hazel in the country is not particularly difficult. Soil around the trunk is periodically loosened to a depth of 0.5 m, while removing weeds. Root shoots are also removed, because young growth is easier to remove while it is still weak. To remove the processes, they are dug up and cut off at the place of growth from the main root. For processing the cut places use crushed charcoal in its purest form.
The soil under the hazel needs to be moistened in a timely manner. Watering seedlings should begin a week after planting in the ground. With a lack of moisture, flowers and, accordingly, fruits will form poorly.
Did you know? Nuts are superior in nutritional value to meat and fish products!
During the growing season, which lasts 8-9 months, the plant needs to be watered up to 6 times, with up to 80 l of water being poured under the bush 1 time.Hazel is a moisture-loving plant, so in hot summers the amount of watering is increased to 8-9 times. After rain and watering, it is recommended that the soil around the bush is well loosened for better gas exchange in the roots of the plant.
How to fertilize
Hazelnuts growing on the plot or in the garden should be fed regularly. In autumn, potassium salt (20-30 g), manure (3-4 kg), superphosphate (50 g) are added under each tree, mixing them uniformly with the topsoil. In the spring, when the buds swell, 20-30 g of urea is introduced under the trees.
During the flowering of hazel, special care for it is not required. It is important that this is a heterogeneous culture, and for its pollination it is necessary that the pollen of male inflorescences falls on female ones. To do this, you need to grow several hazel bushes on the site.
Adult trees tolerate frosts well, but young ones need additional shelter for the winter. To do this, they are bent to the ground and covered with pre-harvested branches of conifers, which are stacked in a pile on top of each other, and covered with snow from above.
Important! Do not fertilize under the bushes before the third year of life - you can spoil the root system of the plant.
With this method of shelter, the bushes do not freeze in winter.
Disease and Pest Prevention
The main pests of hazel include the following:
- Garden green bug - a sucking insect up to 1 cm long, the larvae of which feed on the juice of young shoots and flower buds. To combat the bug use tablets "Spark". One tablet is dissolved in 10 l of water and treated with this solution up to 5 trees.
- Hazelnut weevil - this is a brown beetle up to 10 mm in length, which lays its eggs in unripe nuts, after which the larvae that emerge from the eggs eat the flesh of the fruit. To combat weevil use a solution of the drug “Karbofos”: 75 g per 10 liters of water for processing 5-6 bushes.
- Hazel moth - a small butterfly whose caterpillars live under the top layer of leaves and feed on their juice. At the same time, the edges of the leaves may wrap and dry. For the destruction of moths, "Actellic" is used, 2 ml of which is diluted in 2 liters of water to treat one plant.
The most common diseases of hazel are:
- Black spotting - A disease of fungal nature, when black spots appear on the leaves and pillows with fungal spores develop, in which fruiting bodies form. The leaves fall off, retaining the infection. It will help to fight this problem 1% Bordeaux liquid, which can be bought at any gardening store.
- Powdery mildew - Fungal lesions of hazel, which manifest as a rapidly disappearing spider web. In this case, the foliage turns yellow, and then gradually falls. The pathogen is stored for a long time in fallen leaves. With this lesion, the bushes are treated with a working solution of the "Rayok" preparation, for the preparation of which 2 ml of the concentrate is diluted in 10 liters of water. If the plants are severely affected, then the treatment is repeated after 7 days.
- Diplodiosis - a fungal disease in which the hazel bark first acquires a dark color, and then begins to dry out. The trunk gradually completely dies, while the pathogen is further located in the cortex. Effective to combat diplodiosis will be the tool "HOM". For spraying shrubs, a solution is made by dissolving 20 g of the drug in 5 l of water.
You can easily grow hazel in your area. Follow the basic rules of care and prevention from hazelnut diseases, and then a good harvest will not take long.