Gooseberry on the stem: features of growing, pruning, care
Gooseberry popularity is on the rise again. This is due to the efforts of breeders to develop new varieties with improved taste, the dissemination of information about the culture, as well as the ability to create a standard form of cultivation. The article will introduce gooseberries on the stem, agrotechnology of cultivation and the advantages of the species.
Description of the standard gooseberry
Europeans have been using the method of standard growing berries for a long time, turning their berry crops into low (up to 1.5 m) and fruitful trees.
We began to use this method only a couple of decades ago during the period of mass development of summer cottages and enthusiasm for various forms of cultivation.
Bush forms of gooseberries are spreading. Shrubs grow with age, their branches tend to land under the weight of the crop, it is difficult to care for them, collect fruits and tillage.
Berry ripening is delayed. Weed control is difficult and there is a risk of an outbreak of pathogenic diseases.
To avoid these problems allows the standard (column-shaped) form.
There are 2 ways to grow it - vaccination and the formation of a bush on its own roots:
- Most often, gooseberries are grafted onto the stem of the golden currant Breht Corona, since it is durable, frost-resistant, gives little root shoots, has a powerful root system and is less affected by the intra-stem glass. Gooseberries are grown in a standardized (height of vaccination site - 60–100 cm) and semi-standardized (height - 40–60 cm) form. In this case, the bush takes the form of a sprawling small tree with a stem and rhizome of currant and branches of gooseberry. Vaccination is usually done by methods of splitting, improved copulation, inoculation with the butt with the tongue, inoculation into the side incision. In addition to golden currants, yoshta, a hybrid of gooseberries and black currants, can serve as a good stock.
- The method of forming a spherical gooseberry in the form of a tree on a false stem (own roots) is carried out by trimming and shortening the side branches while maintaining the central conductor. If you are not satisfied with the appearance of this form, you can always return to the classic bush appearance, leaving the root shoot at the base of the gooseberry.
The recommended number of plants for individual consumption is 1 bush per person.
Appearance of the bush, ripening time, productivity
The berry bush has curved and sprawling branches that reach 1–1.5 m in height and up to 1.5 m in width. The roots are shallow. The buds appear very early in the spring. Leaves - alternating, solitary, glossy, dark green or gray-green, slightly pubescent. The degree of leafiness depends on the amount of heat and light.
Young stems are thin, eventually become woody, with large and sharp spikes in each sinus. The stems can take root on their own when touching the ground. Flowers are barely noticeable, green with pinkish petals, open in early spring on annual shoots and on short processes of older shoots.
Fruit - a berry with many small seeds inside, is formed in the sinuses one by one or in pairs, some varieties are pubescent, Color - green, yellow with shades of red, pink, and purple (almost black). The skin color is most intense in full sunlight. Weight - 3–8 g, size - 1–2.5 cm. Berries usually fall off when overripe.
The best yield is on stems 1–4 years old, reaching an average of 4–6 kg per bush. Ripening time depends on the variety and falls on July-August.
Advantages and disadvantages of the standard form
- Obvious advantages of the stem:
- compactness, use in small areas;
- ease of care, fertilizing and irrigation;
- better ventilation and lighting;
- the fruits are larger and sweeter;
- less sick, not affected by pathogens;
- ease of harvesting;
- higher productivity per unit area;
- decorative value for the garden landscape.
- Cons of the form:
- Needs constant support and additional protection against frost;
- species is demanding on top dressing:
- short life compared to bush form.
The system of supporting structures is necessary for the bush throughout life, since the vaccination site is the weakest point, and the height of the bush and the load of the crop can cause the trunk to break. Usually a support stake or a system of several supports is dug into a landing hole.
Use a wood stake impregnated against decay, or metal profiles. If gooseberries are grown in rows, then it can be tied to an installed trellis. Garter is done in 2 places: in the middle of the trunk and in the center of the crown.
Gooseberries need air, light and space. You will get the best yields from bushes planted in a sunny place, in moist and fertile soil with an acidity level of pH 6.0–6.8 and at a distance of at least 1 m from each other.
Despite the very early flowering, this crop is quite resistant to frost, although spring frosts can reduce productivity.
It will tolerate minor shading and will successfully bear fruit even on the north side. Gooseberries are grown in cool and humid climates, even beyond the Arctic Circle.
Wheat grass, raspberries, black currants are bad companions for gooseberries, because they have common pests. However, it is ideally adjacent to red currants, and tomatoes protect it from pests.
Planting and care, pollination
Bushes are planted in late autumn or early spring, as soon as the plants come out of dormancy, and the ground is slightly thawed.
Instructions for planting bushes step by step can be represented as follows:
- Dig a landing area, remove weeds and stones.
- Dig a planting pit 2 times the volume of the root system of the seedling.
- Mix the excavated soil evenly with decayed manure or compost.
- Before planting, shorten the roots slightly to form new young roots at the cut point. Cut the branches that thicken the trunk, and shorten the left branches. The top is not trimmed when grown in its own root form.
- Dig a support stake or metal profile into the pit and set the seedling in the center, spreading the roots.
- Fill the pit with soil mixture and tamp to better bond the roots to the soil and remove air pockets.
- Water the plant well so that the soil is donkey, and cover the soil with organic mulch.
- Tie the bush to the supporting structure in the middle of the stem and in the crown.
Gooseberries are self-fertile, that is, one plant alone will give a good harvest. But recent studies have shown that the degree of self-fertility varies from 25 to 75% depending on the variety. Even nature itself took care that the gooseberries were pollinated by bees - it is an excellent honey plant. Pollination with alien pollen doubles the formation of ovaries, the quality and taste of berries, so try to plant several varieties on the site.
On water-holding soils, adult bushes require very little watering, but regular watering in hot and dry weather is a must for young plants. Plants should be mulched to protect the roots from overheating during hot periods, to preserve moisture when there is a lack of natural rainfall, to reduce weed growth, and to provide plants with nutrients.
Use organic balanced fertilizer in the spring to provide plants with nutrients before the new growing season.This can be achieved by mulching the soil around the base of the bush with well-rotted manure, making sure that it does not fall on the stem. Slowly growing and weakened plants can be fed again at the beginning of summer.
Important! Arid periods in the second half of summer negatively affect the laying of gooseberry fruit buds for next year's harvest.
Gooseberries need a lot of potassium and moderate levels of nitrogen, since an excessive amount of nitrogen leads to the disease with rot. The balance between growth and disease resistance will ensure the annual application of 100-200 g of nitrogen per 1 m².
Potassium deficiency is manifested in the yellowing of the edges of the leaves. The annual addition of 15 g of potassium per 1 m² will eliminate this problem. The plant also has rather high requirements for the content of magnesium in the soil, so on acidic soils, use dolomite complexes that can normalize the soil balance of calcium and magnesium.
Pest and Disease Control
The best way to prevent infection by harmful insects and diseases is to maintain a healthy plant by providing it with good planting soil, plenty of water, plenty of light, and regularly remove fallen leaves and branches. It is necessary to choose planting varieties that are resistant to disease.
Did you know? Gooseberries are banned in North America because fungal diseases can affect commercial plantations of white pine..
Observation of landings will allow you to notice signs of defeat in time and begin the fight:
- Powdery mildew (sferotek) - The most common disease, manifests itself in the hot and humid months, so it is less common in regions with a cool climate. For prevention purposes, the bushes are planted in a well-ventilated area and treated with copper sulfate or biological products (Trichodermin, HOM, Fitosporin, Fitodoktor).
- Rust, anthracnose, Septoria - pathogenic diseases. Plants are treated with fungicides ("Topaz", "Fitosporin", "Agrolekar", "Tiovit Jet") copper (1%) or iron (3%) vitriol and make sure that the soil contains the optimal content of trace elements.
- Mosaic - fungal disease is not treatable. Bushes must be uprooted and burned.
Pest insects are aphids, gall midges, sawfly caterpillars, and glass. For the fight, insecticides of systemic action are used (Lepidocide, Actellic CE, Bitoxibacillin P, Fitoverm).
Trimming and correct formation of the standard bush
Various methods of growing the standard gooseberry (grafting or at their root) require various bush formation and pruning, which allows you to get the desired shape.
On the stem:
- At the end of the first or second season (depending on the strength of growth) by cutting, form a bush of 1 central branch and the remaining 4-6 branches, evenly spaced around.
- Cut the central conductor 1/4–1/8 of the seasonal growth just above the kidney, and shorten the others more, giving the crown a spherical shape.
- In the future, on each branch, leave 4 branches, which are cut annually by 20 cm. Remove problematic, weak and overlapping branches.
- When pruning, keep all shoots at the age of 1-3 years and cut all those older than three years.
As a result of such pruning, the 5-year-old bush will acquire the desired shape. The bush is able to bear fruit for 7–10 years, but as the branches grow older or freeze, they must be replaced by young ones.
On its own root:
- Plant a seedling in a permanent place, cut off all the shoots at ground level, leaving only the strongest upright annual shoot.
- Dig a stake into the planting pit, to which to tie the left branch of the plant.
- In the next season, cut off all shoots at a height of 60–100 cm on the shoot, and leave 4–6 lateral branches higher.
- In the future, form a rounded shape in the same way as for plants on the stem, leaving 4 branches on each side branch.
Important! When forming the bush and choosing the height of the stem, try to take into account the height of the snow cover in your region in order to keep the leaf part in the zone of optimal comfort.
Gooseberries are a fairly winter-hardy and frost-resistant type of berry culture. But in regions with frosty and snowy winters, it is advisable to plant bushes under the protection of buildings or hedges. For the winter, you need to mulch and hump the shtamb, and cover the bush itself with lapnik or agrofibre.
Varieties of standard gooseberry
The independent formation of shtambov is an exciting activity, but at the same time difficult. It requires special training, the ability to vaccinate, patience.
In the standard form, you can grow any variety you like, but the winter hardiness of the culture should be taken into account, since the standard form requires additional shelter for the winter.
Therefore, it is easier to contact nurseries and order ready-made seedlings of standard gooseberry, along with tips on cultivation agricultural technology.
|Grade name||Ripening period||Grade characteristics||Berry color and weight||Yield from the bush|
|Senator||middle||dark red, 6-10 g||3-6 kg|
|Malachite||mid early||green, 7 g||4 kg|
|Mukurines||late||green, 5–7 g||7–9 kg|
|High Castle||middle||dark red, 4-6 g||5-6 kg|
|Neslukhovsky||early||red violet, 6 g||4-5 kg|
|Pax (Pax)||early||red pink, 4–7 g||3-4 kg|
|Incvinta||early||green, 5–7 g||6 kg|
|Black sea||middle||dark red, 4-6 g||3-4 kg|
|Captivator||late||dark red, 3-5 g||3-6 kg|
Harvesting and transportation
Gooseberries must be collected carefully so as not to get hurt by thorns. It is easiest to do this, holding the branch with one hand in a strong glove and picking the berries with the other hand. Gooseberries are one of the few types of berries that are usually harvested unripe for further cooking.
It can be collected from the beginning of summer in 2 stages: first, these will be early, not ripe berries for culinary preparation (in pies, sauces, preserves), and then the fruits will be sweet and more ripe for fresh consumption. The berries that remain after the first harvest will be able to grow, ripen and acquire a flavor - pick them when they are ripe and fully colored, and immediately cool.
Gooseberries are best consumed immediately after harvest, but they can be stored in plastic bags in the refrigerator for up to 7-14 days, depending on the degree of maturity, without loss of taste. Berries withstand frost well and remain until a new crop in a freezer.
Did you know? The value of culture was noted in his book Anatomy of Dessert (1934) by Edward Bagnard. He wrote that gooseberries are, of course, a berry, but with an ambulance effect.
Thanks to the dense pulp and strong skin, the unripe gooseberry withstands transportation over long distances. Ripe berries are transported in small baskets (up to 2 l).
Plant a gooseberry on your plot in the form of a standard culture - and you will be satisfied with the yield and decorativeness of such a plant. This is a fairly reliable and fruitful berry for the garden, which has great health benefits.