What does black raspberry look like, types, features of cultivation, productivity
Aronia raspberries - the original shrub, rarely found in suburban areas. Its berries are very similar to blackberries, so plants are often confused. Read about the aronia raspberry, its features and the agricultural technique of cultivation in the Middle Strip and the Moscow Region further in the article.
Does black raspberry exist, features, useful properties
The similarity of berries is the reason that the two plants are often confused. Reading an article about black raspberries, you can see a photo of a blackberry and vice versa. This only adds to the confusion. Even some nutritionists believe that these are the same berries, although in fact they differ, both in taste and in their properties.
Both plants belong to the genus Rubus of the family Rosaceae. Both of them are widespread in the forests of all European countries. Their rhizome is “perennial”, and the age of the stems does not exceed three years. The stem of a blackberry is like a vine. It is flexible and can be rooted in contact with soil. And with raspberries it is erect and does not fall to the ground.
Did you know? Russia is the largest supplier of raspberries in the world. About 125 thousand tons of berries are produced here annually.
The properties of berries are due to their chemical composition. Since ancient times, raspberries have been used to treat colds and maintain immunity. Blackberry is used as a blood purifier in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, gastritis and for wound healing.
|Raspberry Properties||Blackberry Properties|
Advantages and disadvantages
Compared to other blackberry-like fruits, raspberries contain more antioxidants. It better removes free radicals that can damage DNA, cause cellular changes, oxidize cholesterol and cause premature aging. It also has many anthocyanins. These are pigmented substances that give the berry a dark color.
Anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory properties and can improve vision, normalize the functioning of the cardiovascular system, reduce the risk of hypertension and improve memory.
Blackberries contain a large amount of vitamin C. It is involved in many vital processes in the body, including protein synthesis and the functioning of the immune system. The composition of the fruits is a lot of fiber. It plays an active role in regulating blood sugar and helps maintain healthy cholesterol.
Vitamin K, which is part of the body, is necessary for the body to “organize” the processes of blood coagulation and wound healing. Vitamin A improves vision, fights infections, and supports the health of the musculoskeletal system.
Differences of black raspberries from blackberries
The main differences:
- the appearance of the fruit;
- removal of the receptacle along with the berry;
- growth opportunities of shoots.
The bush of aronia raspberries reaches a height of 2-3 m. It has mid-spike shoots and cirrus leaves, consisting of 5 leaves. The fruit is a drupe 15 mm in diameter, which has a sweet and sour taste, contains a large amount of anthocyanins and ellagic acid.
The difference between the aronia bush and red raspberries is that its branches are more prickly, and the berries are denser and more difficult to separate from the receptacle. Due to this, the crop does not crumble after ripening.
Raspberries are smaller than blackberries. The hairs are more pronounced on them. They are used in traditional medicine much more widely than blackberries. It is also worth noting that raspberries and its effect on the body are much better studied.
Health benefits of berries are mainly due to the high content of antioxidants and anthocyanins. The fruits of black raspberries are usually dried or frozen, they are made from mashed potatoes and juices, and also used to produce dyes.
Blackberries are also shrubs. Its branches can be in a standing position or bend and trail on the ground. They take root in contact with the soil. The height, or rather the length of weaving stems, may exceed 6 m.
Unlike raspberries, blackberries are removed together with the wearer. Fruits of a blackberry of black color covered with a gray raid. Their drupes are much larger than raspberries. Their taste is sweet and sour, but more intense and slightly tart. The possibilities of using in cooking are the same.
Aronia raspberries today represented in many varieties. It can be grown in any region, from the desert to the northern latitudes. And among the existing varieties there is a part of those that may be interesting when grown in the Moscow Region and in Central Russia.
Important! Chemicals released from the root of young raspberries can prevent kidney stones from forming.
Cumberland (Cumberland) - raspberries with juicy black berries and thick skin. The average weight is 2–4 g. This is one of the classic varieties, known since 1896. Cumberland ripens by mid-July.
The variety is resistant to negative temperatures (up to -35 ° C). It shows good productivity in 3–8 winter hardiness zones. It can grow almost everywhere and on all types of soil. For planting, the bush does not require an extensive plot, since it reaches 1 m in diameter.
Varietal features of the bush:
|height||up to 1.5 m|
|width||up to 1 m|
|harvest ripening||end of June - July|
|fruiting||starting from the first year after planting|
Boysenberry is a hybrid of European raspberries and blackberries. It is not known exactly who was the first to receive this cross, but there is a version that this person was the gardener Rudolf Boysen and this happened at the beginning of the last century. In 2007, the plant was improved and marketed under the names Newberry (Newberry) and Rabi Boysen (Ruby Boysen).
The shrub is perennial, resistant to cold, easily adaptable in any conditions and has productive shoots. Its branches are flexible, and ripe fruits are so juicy that they can begin to deteriorate after 2 days after harvest.
Dark cherry fruits of this variety are considered one of the sweetest. They are distinguished by their softer texture, thin skin and slightly tart taste. You can collect them in early August. Berries hang on branches with tassels of 5-6 pcs.
New Logan was launched at a time when demand for black raspberries increased enormously in Europe. During variety testing, he showed a fairly high productivity. Its fruits ripen about a week earlier than Cumberland.
New Logan is considered one of the most frost-resistant varieties.
They are slightly smaller in size, but have a more harmonious taste and are used both fresh and in the preparation of winter blanks. Although it cannot be said that the variety is absolutely immune to fungal diseases, it has good resistance to them. Designed for cultivation in winter hardiness zones 3 to 8.
Black Jewel is an excellent variety with large berries and a rich raspberry flavor that ripen by early July. Obtained by crossing varieties Bristol (Bristol) and Dundee cross (Dundee cross).
It is characterized by powerful direct shoots and high productivity. The plant is partially self-fertile, therefore, needs a pollinator.
|berry||round, black, medium size, weighing about 6 g|
|comes into bearing||in the second year|
|designed for winter hardiness zones||5 to 8|
Important! Raspberry phytonutrients are effective and are actively used in the treatment of high blood pressure and joint inflammation.
Bristol is a cultivar intended for cultivation in 4–8 winter hardiness zones. It is a self-pollinated shrub with fruit ripening in July.
Its berries are distinguished by excellent taste. The plant feels good in most climatic zones. Known for its disease resistance and excellent harvest.
|berry color||the black|
|comes into bearing||for 2 year|
|the soil||loam, drained, with an acidity of 6.0–6.8 pH|
|lighting||sunny day duration - at least 6-7 hours|
The Black Diamond variety is a tall shrub (up to 2.5 m) with medium-sized hemispherical black berries. They taste very sweet, without cloying. Harvest will be ready for harvest in July.
Berries are characterized by a rather long shelf life - up to a week. Designed for cultivation in 4-8 winter hardiness zones. In the suburbs for the winter, she needs shelter from the frost.
Did you know? One raspberry bush per year «produces» about 100 berries. This is approximately 200 g of fruit per shoot.
Glen Coe variety was obtained by the Scottish Agricultural Research Institute by crossing black and red raspberries. Glen Koe has light purple berries with a rich taste and spikes-free shoots. The fruits are suitable for making wine and jam.
Designed for growing in containers and in open ground in frost resistance zones from 4 to 8. The bush is thickened, therefore, requires careful maintenance and thinning. Resistant to verticillium wilting.
|pest resistance||very good|
|drought tolerance||very good|
|lighting||fully sunny area|
|the soil||fertile, moist, drained|
Eleanor - raspberries early ripening (late June). The height of the plant is 2 m. Flexible shoots with a small number of spikes need to be tied. You can form them in the form of an arch. The variety belongs to the crop. The average weight of the berries is 2 g. They are dense, sweet in taste and fragrant.
|frost resistance||4-8 zones|
|pests and diseases||highly resistant|
|the soil||fertile, loose|
Nevot is a variety with strong growth energy, highly productive, with attractive shiny berries. Bred by Peter Tallman, a private breeder from the state of Colorado (USA). The bush is fast-growing, therefore it needs garter and molding.
This is one of the late varieties. Its berries begin to ripen in late August and bear fruit until frost. Fruits are medium in size, like Black Jewel, but with a lower flavor intensity.
|comes into bearing||in the second year|
|designed for winter hardiness zones||5 to 8|
|berry||rounded, black, weighing about 6 g|
|taste||soft, sweet, sour|
Work on obtaining new varieties of aronia raspberries in different countries is ongoing all the time. Breeders improve existing varieties, get new ones with larger berries and higher yields.
Variety Ugolyok, as the name implies, is Russian selection. Originator - Federal Altai Scientific Center for Agrobiotechnology. The variety is intended for cultivation in all regions, including West Siberian.
Early ripening. Its fruiting begins 30–40 days after flowering. The bush is formed by very flexible long shoots. Suitable for decorating arbors, creating arches. Shoots with spikes of medium length. The berries are dense, black in color, with a strong aroma.
The average weight of the berry is 1.6 g. The taste of the fruit is above average.They contain up to 6.6% sugar and only 1% ascorbic acid. The taste of Ugolka is estimated at 4.1 points out of 5 possible. The yield declared by the originator is 41 kg / ha.
Did you know? Raspberries can be successfully pollinated by bees even on a rainy day. Its flowers "look" down, so the pollen remains dry and available for collection.
Litach - aronia raspberries with juicy berries. The variety was bred in Poland in 2008. It bears fruiting in the second year after planting. The variety is frost-resistant, grows well in 4–8 winter hardiness zones. Needs shelter from frost.
The plant is vigorous, with curved spiky shoots. The berries are quite small - 2 g, black with a bluish coating. With proper care, it can produce up to 3 kg of berries from the bush.
Gift of Siberia
The gift of Siberia is the third generation black raspberries obtained by crossbreeding with a blackberry. The variety was bred in 1994 at the Siberian Research Institute of Horticulture. It is characterized as resistant to frost, drought and disease.
The taste qualities of berries are high and are rated at 4.6 points on a five-point scale. The taste is sweet, with a slight acidity. Consistency is dense.
Its distinctive features:
|bush height||up to 2.8 m|
|bush characteristic||powerful, sprawling|
|berries||blunt, without pubescence|
|weight||up to 1.9-2.0 g|
Luck is a variety intended for cultivation in the Far East and Western Siberia. This is a medium-sized bush, reaching a height of 2 m with a small number of branches. Hardy plant perfectly tolerates spring frosts.
Medium-sized berries weighing up to 2 g are generously covered with medium-spiky shoots in mid-July. By taste, they are rated at 4.8 points out of 5 possible.
Raspberry bushes Turn reach a height of 2 m. They are distinguished by a small number of spikes - spines are short, curved and single. Productivity is quite high. From one bush collect up to 3.3 kg of fruit.
Did you know? Purple raspberries are a hybrid of red and black varieties. They can be obtained naturally - if both species are planted side by side.
The variety is characterized by an average ripening period. Berries of a spherical shape, deep black. When ripe, they do not crumble, they are easily separated from the stem. The delicate pulp has gelling properties. They are described as sweet, with honey notes and a little astringency. Berry mass: 1.6–1.8 g.
The rotation is intended for cultivation in the West Siberian region and in the Urals.
Raspberry Hybrid with Blackberry
The abundance of raspberry and blackberry varieties is impressive. Many modern plant varieties are without thorns, which is convenient when harvesting. But the breeders did not stop only at them and moved on, growing hybrids.
The resulting plant was resistant to frost and pests. The first grade is called Loganberry. By the last name of the breeder who first bred this plant in 1881.
But it was not he who gave the name to the variety, but the domestic breeder - Ivan Michurin. The reason for the selection was that Logan did not like the existing raspberries and blackberries.
In 1887, the plant was introduced to Europe. And in 1933 its first non-studded varieties were obtained.
It is not possible to give an unambiguous description of the daily rape for a very simple reason. With subsequent crosses and breeding of new varieties, the appearance of the berries depended on the characteristics of the mother plants and could be more like raspberries or blackberries. And of course, the properties of the plant must be considered in the context of the variety.
Ezemalin Tayberry (Tayberry) is patented by Derek L. Jennings. Developed by the Scottish Horticultural Research Institute in 1979. The plant got its name in honor of the River Tay, which flows in Scotland.
Tyberry fruits have a conical shape and, when ripe, acquire a red-violet hue. The length of the berry is 4 cm. They grow on short lateral branches. As with blackberries, when harvested, the receptacle remains inside the fruit. The berry is less sour than Loganberry. Berries are eaten fresh, prepared jams, pies, wine. The commercial yield of the variety is 27 t / ha.
Important! Berry berries are too soft. They cannot be assembled mechanically.
Growth characteristics of the bush are close to blackberries. Tyberry will grow well on most soils. Abundant fruiting is observed if it grows in an open area with constant sunlight. The bush tolerates drought, is resistant to disease. Harvest will be ready for harvest in early July.
Frosts are rarely a problem for shrubs, as the flowering of the Tiberberry occurs quite late. But at temperatures below -26 ° C, the bushes need to be protected from frost. The variety shows high resistance to rust and other fungal diseases.
Video: Thyberry berry raspberry
Features of agricultural technology
Ezemalin and raspberry itself prefer sunny areas with well-drained soil. Blackberries, in contrast to them, are less “capricious," therefore, they can grow in partial shade, and in the northern or eastern corners of the site.
Landscape designers create artificial partitions for them in the recreation area and use them to decorate the arbors.
This means that planting can be done in early spring. To do this, choose a sunny area.
Blackberries can grow in partial shade. It will also be beautifully woven on the north side of the wall. But it is advisable for raspberries to have sunlight all day.
Plants are often planted along the fence or create hedges from them for a recreation area on a summer cottage.
Raspberries need fertile soil, while blackberries grow well on any type of soil. Yezhmalin need neutral soil. The plot is prepared a month before planting. They dig it to a depth of 60 cm, removing weeds. To prepare the landing pit, the topsoil (10 cm) is removed and set aside. It is most fertile, so it is mixed with organic fertilizers in the amount of 2 buckets per 1 m² of land.
Dig a hole 60 cm deep and 40 cm wide. Part of the prepared soil mixture is poured into the bottom of the hole. In the center set a bush. Start to fall asleep soil mixture. Pour a bucket of water. Add soil and compact it around the plant.
Raspberries, like most blackberry varieties, are self-pollinated. Specify this parameter when buying plants. If you buy a variety that needs pollinators, then plant at a distance of not more than 4 m from each other. This distance is enough so that both bushes do not compete among themselves for nutrients.
For the stability of the bushes set trellis. The first row of wire is pulled at a height of 60 cm from the soil level. Each next - after 30 cm from the previous one. The topmost row should be 180 cm above the ground. The supporting posts must be deepened into the ground to a depth of 60 cm. This will ensure the stability of the structure with strong gusts of wind.
If plants are planted along the fence, then between them and the fence should remain about 30 cm of free space for organizing good air circulation.
Raspberries need pruning. Its shoots bear fruit only once in classic summer varieties or twice in repair plants. In order to make it convenient to remove the prolific shoots, the wire on the trellis is pulled with the letter “V”.
The shoots that appear this year are tied up on one side, and those that will appear on the second. After that, it will be necessary to cut off that part of the branches on which there will no longer be fruiting.
Watering is carried out weekly as the soil dries.To preserve soil moisture, it is advisable to place a layer of mulch around the bush. It will prevent the evaporation of water and the growth of weeds, compaction of the soil.
Plants maintain productivity for at least 10 years. So that they successfully bear fruit, they are fed. The fertilizer application rate is 25 kg per 30 linear meters of the row. This should be a balanced fertilizer with an equal percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For example, 10-10-10.
Fertilizer is introduced in early spring. In the fall, when digging the soil, 15 g of potassium chloride and 30 g of superphosphate are added under each bush.
Did you know? The leaves of the plant may wither in the heat, not because the bush is thirsty, but because moisture from the stomata of the leaves evaporates faster than it «deliver» the roots.
Diseases and Pests
Blackberries and raspberries suffer from the same diseases. And for their treatment they use the same means. Bordeaux liquid (1%) is widely used to combat fungal diseases. The spread of diseases and pests is preceded by thickened bushes, poor air circulation and lighting. All these parameters are easily adjusted by the gardener.
Among the main pests:
- Drosophila fly. She lays eggs in berries, which then crumble.
- Garden aphid. It feeds on plant juice. It is dangerous not only because it damages the leaves, but also because on the sticky plaque secreted by it, soot fungi begin to multiply.
To control insects use insecticide spraying. Against aphids, spraying bushes with soapy water is used. The insects are scared away by the essential oils of some plants: mustard, marigold. Therefore, they are often planted in aisles.
Harvesting and storage
In technical maturity, the fruits of aronia raspberries are red. As they mature, they darken. This will be the main sign of maturity. You can also taste them. Ripe juicy berries with a rich sweet taste.
Raspberries cannot be stored for longer than a few days. In the refrigerator - up to 5 days. The shelf life is affected by cooling berries. Therefore, they are recommended to be collected early in the morning, until they are heated by the sun. The collection is carried out in plastic containers, designed for a volume of 200-400 g. In this volume, the upper berries will not damage the lower ones, crushing them.
To grow aronia raspberries on a site is absolutely simple. The culture practically does not need leaving. Therefore, if there is free space, you can well plant several bushes of this wonderful plant. Obtaining a high yield will depend on compliance with the simple rules of agricultural technology.