Description of walnut Chandler and features of its cultivation
For a long time, walnut (Voloshsky) walnut is one of the most common fruit trees grown both in America and in Europe and Asia. Increasingly, breeders are creating new varieties of this plant, improving its characteristics and taste. One of the popular varieties of walnuts in Russia is Chandler - a variety of American selection.
Description of Chandler Walnut
The Chandler variety is the most famous walnut among Californians, since it was bred at the University of California in 1979 and already from the end of the 20th century. due to its excellent characteristics, they began to actively plant it.
The variety in question is distinguished by such a botanical description:
- Wood. The walnut variety under consideration can reach 28 m, and the crown diameter is more than 18–20 m. The plant is distinguished by powerful branches densely covered with leaves.
- Sheet. Numerous foliage on an adult tree creates great shade around the plant. The leaf has an elongated elliptical shape. The average length of a flat sheet plate is 5–8 cm. The color of the foliage is characterized by a light green hue.
- Fetus. The weight of the nut of this variety is 12–16 g and diameter is 35–40 mm, and the mass of the kernel is 6–8 g. The fruits are characterized by the shape of an oval. Having cleared the nutshell, light kernels having a pleasant taste can easily be separated from the fruit.
Video: Chandler Walnut Garden
How is it blooming?
Flowering of walnuts usually occurs in parallel with the leafing of the tree, usually this period falls on April - May. Chandler differs one of the other varieties by a late flowering period - middle - end of May. This feature is a plus for the plant, preventing the effects of possible frosts and parasite damage.
The flowers are distinguished by their small size and green color. Male flowers are collected in leaf sinuses, and female flowers are usually solitary, forming in the upper part of annual branches. The flowering process lasts an average of 15 days.
The variety under consideration is considered self-pollinating, so that the fruits can form without the help of pollinating trees. Despite this quality, it is recommended to use Franket or Fernet varieties for greater fruiting.
Where is it growing?
Since the Chandler variety was bred in California, growing this nut in America is more common than in Eurasia.
Did you know? Thanks to the Byzantine monks, the fruits of the walnut were brought to Russia in the XII century.
Nevertheless, Turkish company Cevizce Erdem Fidancılık is very popular, which has been producing the variety in question for more than 13 years, which are often purchased by Russian companies or ordinary gardeners.
It should be noted that in Ukraine, thanks to Chandler's grafting on adapted Ukrainian walnut varieties, a large number of trees with high quality nuts are produced, obtained already in the second year after planting. Such nut trees have gained wide popularity in the territory of the Russian Federation.The Chandler variety has recently won love in the North Caucasus, where this variety of walnut tree has very well taken root and bears fruit. The work of the Ingush walnut growers with Chandler began in the fall of 2015.
Walnut is known for its beneficial properties. The fruits of the walnut tree are actively used in folk medicine:
- pulp consumption;
- the use of pulp with various additives;
- the use of infusions and decoctions of the shell;
- making oils from walnut.
The use of such a product is considered necessary for the human body.Experts have identified the main beneficial properties of this nut.
- The list of its benefits includes:
- Strengthening the immune system. Due to the huge amount of vitamins and microelements in fruits, doctors recommend consuming crop kernels to a greater extent in the spring and autumn, when the body is more weakened from vitamin deficiency.
- Anemia treatment. High levels of iron and zinc will do well with low levels of hemoglobin in the blood.
- Treatment of the cardiovascular system. Thanks to vitamins A and E, the body strengthens the vessels and cleanses them of various toxic substances, harmful cholesterol.
- For the work of the gastrointestinal tract. The high protein content in the pulp will allow the digestive system to work, prevents dysbiosis and constipation.
In folk medicine, there are many recipes using walnut shells to create alcohol tinctures. The result of consumption is a good calming effect. Also, many people are aware of the fact that walnuts help in the work of the brain, improve memory. People who live in regions characterized by a low level of ecology are strongly recommended to eat the pulp of the fruits of this tree.
- So, the main indications for the use of this product can be considered:
- improvement of the immune system;
- preventive and therapeutic actions in the work of the cardiovascular system;
- prevention of atherosclerosis;
- improved metabolism;
- prevention and treatment of anemia;
- improvement of the gastrointestinal tract;
- the fight against constipation and dysbiosis;
- beneficial effects on the genitals;
- fight against infertility;
- prevention of premature menopause;
- treatment of the kidneys and urogenital organs;
- helps strengthen male potency;
- has a mild calming effect;
- prevents the appearance of cancerous growths.
Doctors say that the daily norm for consuming walnut kernels should be up to 50 g. This amount will provide the body with the necessary vitamins and nutrients without harming it.
Chandler Walnut Growing
To plant Chandler, you need to know certain climatic conditions and soil requirements that are suitable for this particular crop. The variety under consideration can be planted in places with temperature characteristics from -25 ° C to + 50 ° C.
It is not recommended to grow trees on calcareous, as well as highly clay soils. Chandler grows well and bears fruit on clay-sandy soils, which are characterized by a high content of organic substances.
Before planting, it is necessary to prepare and cultivate the land. It should be borne in mind that if the fertile layer is small, then the soil should be replaced.
It is also necessary to perform such additional fertilizer:
- a mixture of manure with ash (two glasses of ash per bucket of manure);
- superphosphate addition.
With good growth of walnut, it is recommended that annual soil replacement around the crown of the tree is recommended.
Dates and scheme of landing in open ground
The planting period of the Chandler variety is quite extended - from November to April. First of all, the period for planting depends on the climatic conditions of the area. For example, in the southern regions should be planted in the spring, and in the northern - in the fall.
Important! Recommended temperature for good survival of the tree in the area should not be lower than +6...+7°C for 30 days.
For Chandler, an excellent scheme for planting can be considered 6 × 5 m. This will allow you to place seedlings at a close distance, leaving enough inter-row space. This pattern is also characterized by early productivity. If you plant Chandler near the hedge, it is recommended to take into account such distance options: 4 × 8 or 5 × 7 m. The first model will make it possible to mark 312 walnut trees on one hectare, while with the second scheme you can get 285 plants.
Features landing depends on the type of root system: open or closed. The first type of landing involves the following steps:
- The formation of a seat 30 × 30 cm.
- Preparation of a mixture of humic acid and fungicide.
- Cut the roots with a sharp tool - 30 cm from the base.
- Soaking in a mixture. Place the seedling in the pit. Turn towards wind direction.
- Soil application. Install wind protection on 0.5 m seedling.
- Water and fertilize (10 kg) along the perimeter of the protection.
The principle of planting a seedling with a closed root system is the same. Only some nuances should be taken into account:
- pruning of the roots is carried out as necessary;
- the mixture for soaking should be diluted with water;
- squeezing the root system is not allowed.
The subtleties of care
Features of walnut care Chandler involves various procedures. Among the required actions necessary for growing a healthy tree are:
- Pruning. Proper pruning is the ability to double tree yield. This procedure is performed in August as a formation, and in February, sanitary pruning is performed with the removal of old, excess and damaged branches. For young trees 1-2 years old, about 1 m of free space should be left, and 3-4 lateral branches - up to 10 cm of free space in height. After the procedure, it is recommended to use vaccines. Due to the large fruiting on the lateral branches, a layered pruning system (modified) is best for the variety in question. The recommended number of layers is 3-4, of which the bottom is at a distance of 1 m from the ground, and the distance between each level should not exceed 0.8 m.
- Watering. This procedure is carried out in May and all summer, every 10 days a seedling needs 30–45 liters of water for three years. Then every 15 days a tree is watered with 50–70 l. Such watering favorably affects the growth of walnuts and productivity. Experts believe that drip irrigation is an ideal way to saturate Chandler’s moisture. The procedure must be performed in the evening when the weather is not too hot. Watering should be completed by grinding the soil (3-5 days) so that the root system does not become empty, which can lead to drying of the tree.
- Top dressing. Fertilizer of the considered variety is performed twice a year. In the spring, it is recommended to make nitrogen fertilizers, and in the fall, the soil should be saturated with additives with potassium and phosphorus. Spring dressing is carried out taking into account two rules: fertilizing should be done with caution so that harmful bacteria do not develop, and also during the first 3 years of the tree’s life, it is not necessary to make nitrogen fertilizer so that the nut is more fertile.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting will already be possible in three years. You can determine the readiness for collection by the green amniotic membrane - if it is cracked, then the fruits are ready.
After harvesting, it is recommended to keep nuts in the basement for up to 7 days for a simplified cleaning procedure. To prevent the skin of the hands from staining from the green shell containing a large amount of iodine, gloves must be worn. After cleaning the nuts, it is necessary to rinse the fruits and drain in the sun. Unripe nuts that are not peeled must be held in the sun until fully ripened.It is permissible to store the fruits for up to 1 year, and the kernels are stored only for up to 2 weeks, and frozen pulp in the frozen state - up to 12 months.
To preserve fruits, the best conditions are:
- temperature mode -5 ... + 10 ° С;
- maximum humidity level - up to 60%;
- providing a darkened place, without access to sunlight.
Shelled kernels can be stored in several ways:
- at room temperature in a glass jar (up to 2 weeks);
- in the refrigerator in glass (up to 6 months);
- in the freezer in bags (up to 12 months).
Thus, Chandler is a Californian walnut variety that has good characteristics and also requires certain conditions for planting and growing. Due to its beneficial properties, the fruit tree in question has gained popularity around the world.