Care and cultivation of hazel and hazelnuts at home
How can you not like hazel, which brings tasty small nuts called hazelnuts. In the gardens of our compatriots, this plant is quite rare, although there is nothing complicated in caring for it. Hazel perfectly survives even in the suburbs, the main thing before exploring it is to study several nuances.
Hazel is a shrub or tree with large dimensions, depending on the variety. An adult plant can grow up to 7 m. Planting and preparation for it is perhaps one of the most important stages that determine the quality of fruiting in the future and the speed of adaptation to a new place.
Preparatory work includes not only the choice of location, manipulation of the soil, the organization of the planting pit, but also the purchase of high-quality seedlings.
The most correct option is to purchase planting material in local horticultural farms. Such vegetation will take root much better, because it is zoned to a specific region. Today on sale you can find seedlings with an open root system and a closed one, that is, grown in containers.
The first option limits the buyer in planting time, that is, plants must be moved to the open ground no later than 3-5 days from the time of purchase.
They go on sale only in the spring before buds open, and in autumn - during leaf fall. When acquiring such seedlings, the main attention should be paid to the assessment of rhizomes and buds.
The root should be well developed, not overdried, up to 50 cm long, have a large number of fibrous processes, evenly colored in gray.
The kidneys should be in a sleeping state. Manufacturers of high-quality planting material before the sale of seedlings carry out a defoliation procedure - removal of leaf plates with leaving stalks. This technique is designed to reduce moisture loss by the plant.
The ground part of the seedling should have a height of up to 1.5 m and 3 well-developed branches. Ideally, if the plant will be dug up right before purchase. The main thing is not to shake the soil too much. Before transportation, the root must be wrapped with a moisture-absorbing material.
Important! If there are growths on the roots of a seedling, this is a sign of infection with root cancer. Such a purchase should be abandoned, because the plant will not take root well, lag behind in growth, and it is impossible to cure it of the disease.
Seedlings with closed rhizomes are available year-round. If it is possible to buy a plant in winter, then it freely deserves to be planted in a container. Choosing such planting material, it is also necessary to pay attention to the condition of the roots.
They should well braid an earthen lump. This will mean that the plant has already hibernated in a pot. If the seedling is easily pulled out of the container, then it was transplanted recently. Such a plant will take root poorly and may die at all.
The ground part of the seedling with a closed root should also have a height of up to 1.5 m and 3 well-developed shoots. If the purchase is made in the summer, then leaves must be present on the branches. In other words, the developmental stages of the terrestrial part of the plant should correspond to the time of year.
Hazelnuts in the wild prefer to be placed on the edges, along the edge of an open area, on small slopes. Feels good both in open areas and in partial shade. Groundwater should be located at a depth of not more than 1.5 m. Hazelnuts develop rapidly on fertile soils enriched with humus with neutral or weak acidity.
You should not plant hazel in the lowlands, where meltwater accumulates in the spring. If this rule is neglected, the plant will constantly suffer from overmoistening of the root system, which will lead to its decay or affect the quality of fruiting.
The optimal area that a hazel needs for food ranges from 16 to 25 m².
The closest distance at which you can plant a bush from a hazel tree or go a tree is 4–5 m. The same distance should be maintained if several hazelnuts are planted in a row. You can also plant nuts on the west side of the house. In this case, the landing should be located at a distance of 6 m from the building, otherwise the roots will destroy the foundation, and the house may crack.
Planting of the considered vegetation is carried out in the spring, before the buds open, or in the fall, about 25 days before the arrival of frost. Summer for planting is not categorically suitable. In the summer, it is allowed only to transplant vegetation that is sick or too much affected by pests.
Regardless of the season chosen for planting, you need to start preparing the soil six months before the manipulation. Previously, you should plow the territory to a depth of 40 cm. After this, the soil is disinfected.
For this, you can use copper sulfate. 300 g of substance are added to 10 liters of water.
For each m², 1 liter of the finished solution is consumed. It is sprayed onto the surface of the soil from a spray bottle. A week later, after disinfection, the soil is again dug up to a depth of 20 cm, after having previously applied 20 kg of rotted manure, 10 kg of peat, 1 tbsp. wood ash and 200 g of superphosphate.
A month before planting, it is necessary to prepare a landing pit:
- Dig a recess measuring 50 × 50 cm.
- The upper 20 cm of soil from the pit is mixed with 15 kg of decayed manure and 200 g of wood ash.
- With the obtained substrate fill the recess by 1/3. Pour 10 liters of water into it. If there is enough natural precipitation, then water is not poured.
After a month, you can plant hazel. Before that, if possible, bring 2-3 kg of soil from the forest where wild hazel grows. From this substrate in the center of the pit, a hill should be formed.
Did you know? The name hazel appeared due to the peculiar shape of the leaves, resembling a fish of a bream.
If it could not be obtained, the fertile soil remaining from the moment of preparation of the landing pit is used. The roots of the seedling must first be shortened to 25 cm. Soak them for 2 hours in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate.
When all the preparatory manipulations are completed, the rhizome is placed on a hill. Carefully distribute the fibrous processes along the entire perimeter of the pit, making sure that they do not turn up. You also need to carefully monitor the level of location of the root neck. After digging the hole, it should be 5 cm above the soil line.
Having fallen asleep in the pit, the trunk circle must be compacted, pour 3 buckets of water into it. As soon as moisture is absorbed, be sure to mulch with humus, sawdust or peat. The height of the mulch layer should be within 3-5 cm. Next to the plant, at a distance of 25-30 cm from the trunk, dig a wooden stake 1-1.5 m high. Then attach the planted hazelnut to it using a soft cloth cut.
What trees grow next to hazel
A plant such as hazel will completely suppress the following tree species:
- apple tree;
- a pear;
If you plant them in close proximity to each other, then literally after 2-3 years, the above specimens will begin to dry.
As the practice of horticultural enterprises shows, any nut crops should not be grown next to other fruit plants. They have very low compatibility.
The most correct option is to grow nuts of several varieties in one territory, especially since pollinators are necessarily needed in this form (when planting a single crop plant, you can not wait at all). In principle, if you plan to make a decorative flowerbed when laying a garden, you can plant pine, spruce and sea buckthorn at a distance of 5-6 m from hazel.
The nuts of this species will tolerate such a neighborhood normally, i.e. it is natural (wild hazelnuts grow in coniferous and mixed forests in the immediate vicinity of these specimens).
Subtleties of care and ripening
To get delicious homemade nuts from the culture in question, you need to make a minimum of effort and organize the right care. The vegetation is unpretentious. Fruiting begins 5-6 years after planting.
During the implementation of elementary agrotechnical measures, the considered form of walnut will grow and yield a crop for 100 years. The average fertility rate per instance is 50 kg.
Hazel requires a lot of moisture. Depending on weather conditions, humidification should be carried out 2-3 times per month. It is necessary to focus on the condition of the soil under the plant. It should not be dry. Otherwise, the hazelnut will die.
Water is poured into the furrows dug in the near-stem circle, the size of which is equal to the diameter of the crown projection, i.e. grows every year with the plant. After planting, a circular ditch 3 cm deep is made at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk.
A year later, another moat is organized at a distance of 10 cm from the first. Manipulation is repeated annually. For young plants, water consumption at a time is from 15 to 40 liters, for adults (from 6 years) - from 40 to 80 liters.
Fertilizer selection and top dressing
After planting for 3 years, you do not need to fertilize the plants.
In the future, feeding is done after a year according to this scheme:
- in the spring before budding, a mullein in a ratio of 1: 5 with water or bird droppings in a ratio of 1:12 (10–20 l per specimen);
- in the middle of the season - 3 tbsp. wood ash for each shrub, ashes can be diluted in water for irrigation or just dust them with soil and leaves;
- after harvesting - 200 g of superphosphate and 100 potassium salt.
Young trees under the age of 6 years are better fed exclusively with compost and wood ash. Overripe organics can be introduced into the soil during spring digging. Wood ash is generally allowed to be used after every rain. This allows not only to enrich plants with calcium, potassium and phosphorus, but also to prevent the spread of pests, as well as fungal spores.
This manipulation is carried out after each watering and rain. After preliminary digging the soil to a depth of 5 cm, a layer of mulch is laid 5 cm high. It can consist of rotted manure, sawdust, peat or include all 3 elements at once in equal proportions. In autumn, after harvesting, a layer of mulch needs to be made larger, about 10 cm. At this stage, it is better to use rotted manure.
Adult zoned hazelnuts do not need shelter for the winter, but young plants must be covered. They begin to carry out the manipulation when the air temperature in the daytime is set at -1 ...- 2 ° С. First, the branches are bent to the soil, pinned with metal staples.
Important! Before the onset of cold weather, plants of any age should be freed from branches that have dried up, broken and damaged by diseases / pests. They do this with a sterile tool, and after that they always lubricate all sections with garden var.
After that, cover with spruce branches, and then spanbond. In the spring, when the air temperature is set at 0 ...- 2 ° С at night, you will need to open the vegetation. Winter insulation is carried out for 3 years from the moment of planting. Already for 4 years, the roots and the ground part will be strong enough and will be able to winter without shelter.
Pests and diseases
The culture in question is distinguished by a fairly strong immunity. However, in case of non-observance of agricultural engineering rules or adverse weather conditions (long rainy period, extreme heat, etc.), it can be affected by diseases and pests.
The most common ailments of hazel:
|Disease||Manifestations||Methods of struggle|
|Moniliosis||Fungal spores begin to multiply on the plant already at the time of flowering, but the symptoms are not yet manifested. Symptoms are clearly visible at the stage of fetal formation. Brown spots appear on the nut. It shrinks, rots and falls not yet ripened.||Eliminate all infected fruits from the area. Treat with 1% solution of copper sulfate on foliage and soil (add 10 g of substance to 10 l of water). Multiplicity of sprayings - 3 times with an interval of 10 days. 2 days after each spraying, carry out deep loosening of the soil in the near-stem circle (10 cm). Feed the plant with rotted manure in combination with wood ash (10 kg / 200 g). Fertilizers to make under digging.|
|Powdery mildew||Also applies to fungal diseases. Manifestations are first noted on leaf blades. A white coating appears on their inner side. At a more detailed examination, you can see the fluff - this is the fungal spores.||Remove all damaged parts of the plant and burn them. Spray Bordeaux liquid 1% concentration. The multiplicity of treatments is 3 with an interval of 10 days. It is imperative to carry out deep loosening of the soil and mulch it with peat or sawdust.|
|Gray rot||It affects leaves, fruit buds and shoots. As a result, there is a slowdown in growth, deterioration in the quality and quantity of the crop.||When the first symptoms appear, it should be treated with Diskus or Nimrod drugs, guided by the manufacturer's instructions. If the infection occurred in the early stages of vegetation development (1-2 years after planting), the best way out of the situation is to transplant to a new place with preliminary treatment of the bush with 3% solution of copper sulfate and the complete elimination of the infected areas.|
Of the pests, hazel plantings can affect:
- Aphid - eliminated by dusting on a sheet and soil with wood ash. Processing can be carried out every 10 days, until the parasites completely disappear.
- Hazel bud mite - to combat it, use the drug "Karate Zeon" according to the instructions. If there are too many pests, then a second treatment is carried out after a week.
- Spider mite - eliminated with a soap solution (for 5 l of water, 200 g of laundry soap). Spraying is carried out in the evening. Early in the morning, the soapy solution is washed off with clean water. Such manipulations are carried out every 10 days, 3 times.
- Nut weevil - the soil is immediately dug up to a depth of 20 cm. Spraying with Decis according to the instructions is carried out on the sheet and soil.
- Pipe drill - eliminated by dusting with wood ash on a leaf and soil, after preliminary digging of the soil to a depth of 20 cm.
- Barbel - eliminated as nut weevil.
- Leaf elephants - control measures are similar to those for the previous parasite.
- Northern birch sawfly - also eliminated with Karate Zeon.
Collection and storage of fruits
Harvesting nuts begin in late August - September. The ripeness of the fruit is determined by the color change of the pluses (leaves in which the nut is held) from green to yellowish or brown.
Harvest in several stages, t. Not all fruits ripen at the same time. The fastest way is to spread a tarp under the tree and shake the plant (s). All ripened fruits will crumble, and you will have to collect them. Such manipulations are carried out approximately once every 7-10 days, until the entire crop is harvested.
Did you know? Despite the fact that hazel gives tasty nuts, in forestries it is referred to as weed.This is due to the extremely high ability of the plant to spread rapidly and occupy more and more territories, crowding out other trees and shrubs.
Before laying for storage, hazel must be dried. Fruits are laid out in a thin layer on a newspaper. At room temperature, incubated for about 2 weeks. After that, you can pour nuts into linen bags and place in a cool, dry room.
Growing hazel in your area is not difficult even for an inexperienced gardener. Caring for her is quite simple. Especially if you follow the recommendations described above.