Varieties of walnuts
Today, several dozen bred varieties of walnut are known, which are characterized by individual biological characteristics, taste, different productivity indicators and other qualities. When choosing the type of seedlings for cultivation in the zone of central Russia and the Krasnodar Territory, one should take into account severe climatic conditions and soil features. To avoid harvest loss, you need to choose early-growing, frost-resistant, high-yielding hybrids with high quality fruits.
It is better to plant low-growing walnut trees in open soils with good lighting, observing the distance between seedlings of at least 3 m. If grown correctly, the first harvest can be made after three years.
The climate of the middle strip and the Krasnodar region is most optimal for the following varieties of walnut:
- Ivan Bagryany. The second name is Sadko. 100% hybrid undersized species with a high yield obtained by selection of the popular Ideal variety. It is characterized by intensive fruiting and excellent commercial quality of a kernel of almost white color. The recommended scheme for planting seedlings is 5 × 5 m in a row. Fruits are arranged in clusters of 2 to 16 nuts per brush. When ripe, a thin shell breaks. The grafted forms give the first crop in 2 years, the seedlings fully bear fruit in the 4th – 5th year. It has high frost resistance - tolerates temperatures below -30 ° C, unpretentious to the soil. Productivity reaches 30–40 kg per tree.
- Taisia and Timothy - varieties "twins." The height of the tree can be stopped at the level of 3-4 m by regular pruning of branches, therefore seedlings can be grown with a denser planting per 1 ha. A light straw core fills the fetus by 55%. Weight reaches 16–20 g. The oil content of the kernel is 69–71%, and the quality is high. Characteristically late tying buds, flowering and ripening. Unpretentious in care and give large yields.
- Kocherchenko. Ukrainian breeder brought a unique stunted, early walnut. Fruiting early - from 2-3 years of planting, even annuals can give flowering. The ovary is large-fruited, the shell is thin. Height reaches 5 m, yield - 40 kg, average fruit weight - 8-12 g, core - 55%.
Almost all dwarf crops exhibit great resistance to low temperatures, so they are ideal for medium climatic zones.
Did you know? In ancient Greece, nuts were called the "Acorns of the Gods," and in Babylon they knew that they improve brain function and memory, so they forbade ordinary people to eat so that they would not become too intelligent.
Frost resistant varieties
To get a good crop in the middle lane, it is better to lay gardens from the following winter-hardy walnut crops:
- Ideal. The stunted form is an average height of 4–5 m. It tolerates frosts up to -35 ° C, and is characterized by incredible early maturity. Already on an annual tree 2-3 nuts are tied in a season. The kernels are sweet, the shell is thin, the average weight of the fruit is 10 g.
- Astakhovsky. New winter-hardy culture. Withstands -37 ° C. An adult tree up to 10 m tall is characterized by high productivity - 35–45 kg per season for the 6th year of planting. Resistant to disease.
- Saratov ideal. It is a quick-form, able to withstand frosts to -37 ° C. From 4–5 years old begins to bear fruit, harvesting is allowed from 5-year-old plants. A thin shell easily bursts at the seam. A tasty, sweet core has a weight of 10–11 g and good oil content. Height - up to 5 m, in the harvest season you can remove more than 80 kg of nuts from one unit.
- Giant. Medium-sized culture up to 6 m high. Frost-resistant (-33 ° С) and drought-resistant. Thin-bodied fruit, the kernel is sweet in taste, not fatty. The yield of a 15-year-old tree per season is up to 40 kg.
Description of characteristics and photos of each species will allow to plant a garden, which will give a large yield in the climate of the middle zone.
Did you know? In medicine, walnuts are used to obtain drugs with bactericidal, restorative, astringent, anthelmintic actions.
This category of walnuts ripens in the early stages. It is characterized by abundant fruiting. The following are the best types of seedlings for growing in a mid-range climate:
- Dawn of the east. A short plant up to 3-4 m, at the 4-5th year enters fruiting. The ovary fully ripens in late September. High resistance to frost and brown spotting. From one adult plant leaves up to 24 kg of crop. The weight of the core is 9 g.
- Korenovsky. Withstands frosts to -35 ° C, bears fruit in clusters of up to 25 nuts in one brush. Fruit weight - more than 10 g. Skoroplodny low-growing species. Harvest gives in the 2nd – 3rd year, sometimes from the first. For one vegetation, you can collect 2 crops.
- Beloved Petrosyan. Tall form, plant frost-resistant, high-yielding. Fruits with excellent taste. Fruits in the 4th year of planting, up to 22 kg of crop per unit.
- Krasnodar early. Winter-hardy vigorous plant with regular fruiting and high productivity. Thin-shell nuts, fruit weight 11 g. Ripen in the 3rd decade of September.In early-growing varieties of walnuts, both apical and lateral buds are productive, therefore, to harvest a high yield, good development of lateral shoots is necessary.
For the Krasnodar Territory
In this climate zone, it is recommended that gardens are grown from varieties bred at the North Caucasus Zonal Research Institute of Gardening and Viticulture.
It is these hybrids that are best suited, as they are characterized by good frost resistance, resistance to diseases, pests and high productivity:
- Anniversary. Strong-growing, early-growing, winter-hardy, with high productivity. The fruit weighs 8–10 g; the shell is thin. Fruiting begins from the 5-6th year after planting in late September.
- Elegant. It is characterized by regular fruiting, drought tolerance, and is immune to brown spotting. A tall plant, the crown is wide oval. Fruits, starting from the 5th year of laying the garden. One planted unit produces 18–20 kg per season. The mass of the fetus is 12.5 g, the core is 54.1%, the oil content is 67.6%. Recommended for growing on an industrial scale.
- Five year. Rapid, vigorous, winter-hardy species, with regular fruiting by 4–5 years. 8–10-year-old trees yield up to 18–20 kg of crop. It shows high resistance to brown spotting. The weight of the nut is 9.1 g, the core is 56.9%, and the shell is thin.
- Pelan. It is characterized by good frost resistance, drought tolerance, slightly susceptible to defeat by Marsonia. Vigorous, early, apical lateral type. Productivity is good, regular - up to 20-24 kg per tree.
In the Krasnodar Territory, preference should be given to early varieties of walnut for planting a garden of a summer or farmer type.
For Moscow region
Only winter-hardy varieties take root well in this region. The best choice for landing are:
- Harvest. Tall, early ripening plants, frost-resistant with good productivity from one plant 25-30 kg. Begin to bear fruit in the 4th year in early September. Nuts grow in clusters, the weight of one is 9–10 g. Tastes are sweet.
- Aurora. It shows medium frost resistance and early ripening of fruits. The species is resistant to almost all diseases. Tree height - up to 6 m, bearing fruit for the 4th year. Adult 10-year-old plants produce 25 kg per season from one tree. The mass of the core is 12 g.
- Memory of Minov. A fast-growing tree with an apical type of fruiting. Productivity is high, the fruits are large, slightly flattened on the sides. Begins fruiting from the 5th year after planting. The weight of the nut is 15.2 g, the shell is thin, the kernel is yellow.Resistant to brown spotting and Marsonia.
- Giant. Surprisingly unpretentious to care for, winter-hardy. Gives a plentiful harvest for the 6th year after planting seedlings. The height of an adult plant is 5 m. The shell is thin, the weight of the kernel is 10 g. It is resistant to disease.
When choosing seedlings for a given climatic region, one should be guided by the presence of black or gray nut shoots in the okrug and their valuable biological characteristics. They are the basis of planting material of all other cultivars.
Important! When choosing a plant variety, it is necessary to take into account resistance to diseases, pests and soil and climatic conditions of the area.
Walnut trees with good fruiting on the lateral branches are of a lateral type. Female inflorescences develop and form an ovary, not only on the tops of mature branches, but also from the axillary buds of young shoots. Such hazels quickly reach a stable yield period, by about 4 years after laying the garden.
The following frost-resistant varieties are distinguished for the middle lane and the Krasnodar Territory:
- Peschansky - the size of the tree is medium, the branches relative to the trunk are located at an angle of 90 °, shows high resistance to drought and frost to -30 ° C, the core is oily cream in color.
- Vasion - medium-high culture, high-yielding, resistant to most diseases of fruit and berry plants, withstands frosts down to -30 ° C, fruits - 18–20 g.
Also referred to as lateral are Taisia and Timothy. The feedback from experienced gardeners shows that lateral hazel trees give a higher yield compared to terminal ones (apical fruiting).
Large-scale fertility determines the weight of the fetus, which breeders are constantly trying to increase by breeding more and more new species. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. However, all gardeners note their high productivity and quality of the core.
The most popular are listed in the table:
|Title||Core weight, g||Productivity, kg / s 1 unit|
|Memory of Minov||15||27|
Today, breeders have bred dozens of variations of walnut varieties for the successful laying of gardens in the middle lane and the Krasnodar Territory. All species are endowed with increased winter hardiness, high taste and marketability of the kernel. Fruiting occurs from late September to October.
Did you know? In 1999, breeders at the University of California, Davis, first bred walnuts with red kernels. The variety is patented under the name Robert Livermore. Later, this hybrid was bred in Moldova and Russia.
For the selection of seedlings and successful cultivation should also take into account the characteristics of the climate and soil composition. The correct selection of the variety of culture will provide the gardener with high yields for many years.