Olive-brown oak: appearance and structure, toxicity
One of the rare representatives of the mushroom kingdom is the olive-brown Dubovik. Therefore, he is a very welcome trophy for lovers of quiet hunting. We present to your attention a detailed description with a photo.
Appearance and structure
Boletus luridus (he is an olive-brown Dubovik, Poddubnik, Bruise, dirty brown Boletus) - this edible (i.e., containing a small amount of toxic substances) mushroom belonging to the genus Borovik, the Boletov family and belongs to the second category in terms of nutritional and taste qualities.
Did you know? When cooking Dubovik, the water turns a dark blue-green color. It’s not worth it to be afraid, because it’s not for nothing that it is popularly called the Bruise.
The fruit body agaricoid consists of a hat and legs. Gymenophore (lower part of the hat) - tubular, porous. His hat is about 20 cm in diameter, hemispherical or convex, in the process of growth, it can become more flat, similar to a pillow.
The color of the hat may vary, but basically it is light green with a brown tint. The skin of the hat is velvety, dry, in wet weather it can become mucous. If you touch it, then dark marks will remain on the surface.
The flesh is yellow-lemon, dense. With a kink, it quickly acquires first a blue color, then a brown one.The taste and smell are not expressed. The tubes are first yellow, with an olive or green color, they are loose, up to 3.5 cm long. The pores are small, red, when pressed, they turn blue.
Important! If, after consuming mushrooms, you feel very thirsty, have vomiting or diarrhea, have a palpitations, or have a fever, you should immediately seek medical help.
Between the hat and the tubular layer there is a noticeable, when cut, spotted layer of red. The foot is in the form of a spindle, grows about 15 cm in length and 6 cm in diameter, with a tuber-like seal at the base and narrowing near the hat, of dense consistency. The color is orange-yellow under the hat and red-brown below.
Covered with a mesh pattern with convex elongated loops of brown or red. The spores are small and smooth, in the form of a spindle, a red-brown hue. Spore powder can be olive to brown.
The color of the mushroom changes with age: a hat from light yellow to dark brown, with yellow-red edges; the foot in the middle may become reddish and turn green at the base.
Where do they grow and spread
Olive-brown Dubovik is a heat-loving representative of the kingdom of mushrooms. It grows on calcareous soils in deciduous and mixed forests., less often in conifers, in well-lit and warmed places. Preference is given to oaks, beech and linden trees, sometimes growing near birches.
Did you know? This species was first described by the German botanist-mycologist Ya.G. Schaeffer, in 1774.
Basically, it can be found in Europe, the Caucasus, less often in the southern part of the Far East and Western Siberia, rarely, but it happens in the Leningrad region. Under birches grows in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The fruiting season falls on July - September, the peak of ripening in the month of August. Under favorable weather conditions, it may appear in May, and in autumn grow until October.
The best time to collect Bolets is earlier in the morning, during this period they are fresh and elastic, which allows them to be kept fresh for longer.
Reasons for extinction
According to scientists, this species has become rare because of the human factor. Uncontrolled mass gathering, deforestation and environmental pollution are the main causes of the extinction of this type of mushroom. So, for example, in 2012 Duboviki was listed in the Red Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
These mushrooms are rich and rich in chemical composition.
- carbohydrates - fructose and glucose;
- fats - saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, campesterol;
- minerals - sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, manganese;
- vitamins - C, D, folic, pantothenic and nicotinic acids, tocopherol, calciferol, etc .;
- amino acids - leucine, glycine, lysine, arginine, etc .;
- antibiotic - boletol.
Given that the composition of Poddubnik has a small amount of toxic substances, it must be properly heat treated before cooking.
This is done as follows:
- Rinse the cleaned mushrooms thoroughly under running water.
- Dip in boiling salted water, cook for at least 15 minutes.
- Then drain the broth (in no case do not use it for cooking, because it contains a large amount of toxins).
- Rinse the mushrooms well again under running water and squeeze.
- Pour cold water, bring to a boil, boil for at least 5 minutes.
- Drain the water, rinse the mushrooms and can be cooked according to the recipe.
Important! In order to avoid poisoning, these mushrooms are not recommended for use with alcohol.
Use in cooking and medicine
After the heat treatment, the Poddubniks can be fried, pickled, canned, dried, etc. They are used to make caviar, toppings of pies, and prepare delicious souffles and soups. Fans of mushroom treats will surely find their application.
- The healing properties are due to the rich chemical composition:
- normalization of blood pressure and the cardiovascular system as a whole;
- cleansing the body of toxins and decay products;
- stimulation of the immune system;
- improving the condition of the epidermis, hair and nails;
- increased potency and sexual desire;
- stimulation of wound healing.
Dubovik contains boletol, an antibiotic used in the fight against bacteria that helps with general weakness and nausea.
Collect mushrooms correctly, cut them carefully with a knife so as not to spoil the mycelium. Going into the forest, be careful, because in the thickets there can be snakes or wild animals. If you became the proud owner of such a rare mushroom as the olive-brown Dubovik,stick to cooking rules and enjoy your favorite recipes.