Speckled oak: cooking use and cultivation
Mushroom pickers with experience know many interesting mushrooms, one of which is speckled oak. It is characterized by a very interesting appearance and is clearly visible in the forest, as it has distinctive features.
Speckled oak: photo and description
Speckled oak (Boletus erythropus) belongs to the genus Borovikov, the Boletov family and is edible. In the people, it has many synonymous names, for example, oak tree, granular boletus, bruise, red-footed boletus. You can recognize it by the round round hat, orange-red color and the shape of the legs in the form of a barrel.
Important! Cutting off the mushroom, you need to leave the rhizome in the ground. If the plant is pulled out completely, it will no longer grow in this place.
Description of the characteristics of the speckled oak tree:
- cap diameter - from 5 to 20 cm;
- leg height - from 5 to 15 cm;
- the hat is brown, velvety, without shine;
- the leg is dense, in diameter reaches 4 cm;
- upon closer inspection, red dots or a semblance of a red fine mesh are visible on the leg.
The overall impression of the cudgel: massive, squat, large mushroom. For inexperienced mushroom pickers, it may seem like white, but with a cushioned hat. The flesh has a faint yellow hue, it begins to turn blue immediately after the cut.
As the spores grow older, the fungus changes color several times. Young tubules of the speckled oak tree have a light olive color, turning as they grow into dark green, orange and, finally, into red.
Where is growing
The ideal habitat of the speckled oak tree is deciduous forests, oak groves, coniferous plantations and undergrowths, as well as mixed forest belts with a large number of spruce, oak, pine, fir and beech trees. The territorial distribution of the fungus is quite wide: the whole Caucasus, Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Europe. He loves acidic soils, a large amount of moss, partial shade and dampness.
Did you know? The oldest fungus found on the planet is 400 million years old!
When to collect
The growth period of the speckled oak tree is quite long: from May to October. Harvest is better to coincide with July, because at this time there is a maximum level of fruiting. By October, some mushrooms become too large and empty inside, and it’s hard to process them when they outgrow their average size.For collection, a small sharp knife is used, with which the mushroom is carefully cut and placed in a storage container. It can be a wicker basket or an enamel bucket.
Like other fungi, granular mushrooms are propagated by spores. Nevertheless, the cultivation of such mushrooms at home is a very complex process. It is recommended to harvest in the forest, on large areas of moss, in an environmentally friendly environment. For those recently in the mushroom business,It will be useful to look at the photos of the false oak trees and find out their names.
Important! During heat treatment, toxins are eliminated from mushroom tissues, therefore double cooking with water change during cooking is required.
False mushrooms include his relatives:
Use in cooking and medicine
From time immemorial, speckled boletus was very fond of harvesting in various ways. After soaking it can be boiled and fried, salted, fermented, cooked soaked in a barrel or even dried. It has a high nutritional value and contains vegetable protein. It’s better not to give such a treat to children under 5 years old, because the children's digestive tract is very weak for digesting complex proteins.
The preparation for harvesting mushrooms is always the same:
- oaks are cleaned of large particles (spruce needles, moss, leaves and small debris), peel off the hat, wash and soak for 6-8 hours;
- old water is drained, and new mushrooms are poured;
- the product is boiled, after which they can be closed in jars, fry, cook soup, etc.
In medicine, mushrooms are valued for their high content of manganese, copper and zinc. These trace elements are important for the full functioning of the nervous system. A single daily rate of mushrooms for an adult is not more than 200 grams in finished form. They can not be combined with fish and meat (it is better to eat separately from other types of protein).
Did you know? In China, there is a science called fungotherapy. It involves the treatment of diseases with mushroom products.
Mushroom protein is very saturated and is digested for a long time, if you eat too much, you can not avoid abdominal pain or even indigestion. The assembled and correctly harvested oak trees will decorate any holiday table.Everyone will love them, because this is a great cold appetizer and a great addition to other treats.