Description of the fungus mustard and features of its use
Gorchak, or false white mushroom, with a detailed description and photo of which can be found below, is scientifically called bile mushroom. Its names are due to the similarity with ceps, as well as strong bitterness, which during heat treatment does not disappear, but only intensifies. Each mushroom picker should study the information about the representative of the mushroom kingdom in more detail in order to understand whether it can be eaten or not, and also not to be confused with delicious mushroom.
Gorchak belongs to the family of flying. Fruits in late June to mid-October, but can end the growing season in September with the onset of early frosts. The most active development of the fungi under consideration is observed in the warm period after heavy rain.
What does it look like
Description of the characteristic features of mustard:
|Hat shape and size|
|Gimenofor (mushroom flesh on the inside of the cap)|
|The color of the outside of the hat|
Where is growing
The considered representative of the mushroom kingdom is ubiquitous. It settles mainly in coniferous forests. Most often, mustard mushroom glades are found near marshy areas, mosses, rotten fallen trees. Mustard grow in small groups or singly. Mushrooms form whole clusters on fallen rotten trees.
Important! If at least one mustard is cooked with other edible mushrooms, the taste of the dish will inevitably be spoiled: it will acquire an unpleasant bitterness.
Edible or not
Gorchak is an inedible mushroom, but it is not poisonous. It is not consumed as food only because of an unpleasant taste. However, if you carry out high-quality pre-processing, the product may well diversify the diet, adding interesting notes to your favorite dishes.
Varieties and doubles
According to their characteristics, the mustard is similar in appearance to a large number of tubular specimens:
- white or boletus;
- birch bark;
- honey agaric;
- poisonous satanic mushroom.
Did you know? Mushrooms reproduce by spores. The raincoat is the record holder for the number of spores thrown out - to a height above 2 m at a speed of 90 km / h it spreads more than 7 trillion of these microparticles.
The main feature that distinguishes mustard from edible counterparts is the net on the leg. The boletus, boletus, champignon and breastbone have scales on the leg. The first grows mainly in deciduous forests, and the mustard prefer coniferous. If we talk about greenfinches, they do not grow on the surface of the soil, but are hidden under its cover, at a depth of about 3 cm. Honey mushrooms are distinguished by smaller dimensions, a thin light brown leg smooth around the entire perimeter and a flat hat of a darker color.The satanic mushroom is distinguished by a thick leg, which is colored in pink, while in the mustard it is pale.
The cultivation of the fungus in question is practiced in the USA. There it is cultivated to produce tylopilane. This substance blocks the growth of cancer cells. In other areas, the cultivation of mustard is not carried out.
Did you know? A mushroom called plasmodium is widespread in Russia: outwardly it resembles a gelatinous translucent mass. Its feature is the ability to move, however, the speed is low - only 1 cm / h.
In Europe, a number of studies of the biological characteristics of the components that make up the product under consideration were carried out.
- French scientists have proved that these substances can have a beneficial effect on the human body:
If the product is processed correctly, then it is quite possible to eat it. However, do not exceed the dosage of 100 g per day. In China, these mushrooms are used in dry form - whole or ground. They are added to the first and second courses to enhance the taste. To eliminate bitterness, the product is pre-soaked in water for 2-3 days. The fluid is changed every 3-4 hours to prevent moldiness.
In France, in order to eliminate bitterness, the product is pre-boiled in milk. Then it is crushed and added to various dishes.
Cooking a false boletus with other mushrooms is not worth it. It is used only separately, after preliminary processing. It is also not worth it to immediately cook the mustard in the water, since then it is very difficult to wash the dark coating. In addition, boiling in water without first soaking or boiling in milk only enhances bitterness.
In the old days, false boletus was used in folk medicine. It has antitumor and choleretic action.. It was pulverized and taken with a pinch daily. Also practiced the insistence of mustard on moonshine.
If you eat a small amount of the product in question, then poisoning is unlikely to occur immediately, except in cases of individual intolerance to such products. Moreover, in cases where the mustard is subjected to conservation, confusing them with boletus, a person who has eaten a lot of such products may get food poisoning. The fact is that with such treatments they use a preservative in the form of acetic acid - it masks bitterness.
- Symptoms of poisoning are:
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- impaired liver function that can be treated with drugs.
Manifestations of the defeat of toxins may not reveal themselves immediately, but after a few days. Such consequences of the consumption of the product can occur only in case of improper handling.
Important! In extreme cases, with excessive use of mustard or when the gall bladder does not work properly, liver cirrhosis may develop.
The appearance of mustard is similar to boletus and a number of other tubular mushrooms. This mushroom belongs to the category of inedible, nevertheless it is used in various cuisines of the world after preliminary processing. In Russia, false boletus is also used in food and in traditional medicine.